The History of GPG: From PGP to GnuPG

In today’s digital world, privacy and security are more important than ever. As the amount of sensitive information being stored and transmitted electronically continues to grow, it’s essential to have tools that can protect this information from being intercepted and misused. One such tool is GPG, an encryption program that has been at the forefront of secure communication for over 25 years. In this article, we’ll take a look at the history of GPG, from its early days as PGP to its current form as GnuPG.

The Security Risks of Jailbreaking an iOS Device and How to Reduce Them

Introduction Jailbreaking an iOS device involves removing the restrictions imposed by Apple and gaining root access to the underlying operating system. While jailbreaking can provide users with more freedom and customization options, it also comes with significant security risks. In this article, we will discuss the security implications of jailbreaking an iOS device and provide some recommendations for keeping your device secure. Jailbreaking iOS Device Risks One of the main security risks associated with jailbreaking is that it exposes the device to malware and other malicious software.

End-to-End Encryption: Protecting Your Privacy in the Digital Age

In today’s digital age, the internet has become an integral part of our lives. From online shopping and banking to social media and messaging, we rely on the internet for almost every aspect of our personal and professional lives. With this increased reliance on the internet comes the need for better protection of our sensitive information. This is where end-to-end encryption comes in. End-to-end encryption (E2EE) is a method of secure communication that protects the privacy of the message being sent.

Twitter Data Leak: A Wake-Up Call for Online Privacy

In January 2021, a massive data leak of Twitter user information was discovered. The leak affected over 330 million Twitter users, and included sensitive information such as email addresses, phone numbers, and locations. The source of the leak was a hacker group that claimed to have gained access to Twitter’s internal systems. The Twitter data leak is a stark reminder of the vulnerability of personal information in the digital age. With the increasing use of social media and other online platforms, our personal data is being stored in vast quantities by companies and organizations.

Facebook Data Leak: The Dangers of Sharing Personal Information Online

In recent years, Facebook has been at the center of several high-profile data breaches, which have resulted in the personal information of millions of users being exposed. These breaches have raised serious concerns about the security of personal information in the digital age and the potential dangers of sharing sensitive data on social media. The most notable of these breaches was the Cambridge Analytica scandal in 2018, where the personal data of 87 million Facebook users was harvested and used for political advertising purposes.

Google Data Leak: Protecting Your Personal Information in the Digital Age

In recent years, there have been several high-profile data breaches involving Google, one of the largest tech companies in the world. These breaches have raised serious concerns about the security of personal information and the potential dangers of using online services. One of the most notable data breaches involving Google was the exposure of personal data of hundreds of thousands of Google+ users in 2018. The breach was caused by a software vulnerability, which allowed third-party developers to access sensitive information such as name, email address, occupation, and gender.

Yahoo Data Leak: A Cautionary Tale of Online Privacy

In 2013, Yahoo experienced one of the largest data breaches in history, resulting in the personal information of over 3 billion users being exposed. This breach was a major wake-up call for users about the dangers of sharing personal information online and the importance of online privacy. The Yahoo data breach was caused by a state-sponsored hacker who gained access to the company’s systems and stole sensitive information such as names, email addresses, phone numbers, dates of birth, and security questions and answers.

Data Breaches: A Rollercoaster Ride of Hacks and Leaks

In the world of technology, data breaches are becoming more and more common. From large corporations to small businesses, no one is safe from the prying eyes of cybercriminals. In this article, we’ll take a wild ride through some of the most famous data breaches of all time and see just how much information was stolen. Buckle up and let’s get started! Yahoo (2013) - This massive breach affected all 3 billion of Yahoo’s user accounts.

OpenSSL vs. BoringSSL: A Comparison of Security and Performance

OpenSSL and BoringSSL are two of the most widely used cryptography libraries in the world, both providing essential encryption and secure communication services to millions of websites, applications, and devices. While both libraries are widely trusted, they differ in important ways when it comes to security and performance. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at the two libraries and compare them in terms of vulnerabilities, performance, and source code.

OpenSSL: A Hall of Shame for Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities

OpenSSL is a widely used open-source cryptography library that provides secure communication for many websites and applications. Despite its widespread use, OpenSSL has suffered from a number of critical vulnerabilities over the years, exposing sensitive information and putting the security of millions of users at risk. In this article, we’ll take a look at some of the most famous OpenSSL vulnerabilities. Heartbleed (2014) - One of the most famous OpenSSL vulnerabilities of all time, Heartbleed allowed attackers to steal sensitive information, including passwords and encryption keys, from memory.

BoringSSL: A Record of Vulnerabilities and Security Concerns

BoringSSL is a fork of OpenSSL, created by Google, that aims to provide a more secure and performant cryptography library. Despite its focus on security, BoringSSL has suffered from a number of critical vulnerabilities over the years, exposing sensitive information and putting the security of millions of users at risk. In this article, we’ll take a look at some of the most famous BoringSSL vulnerabilities. Cloudbleed (2017) - This vulnerability allowed attackers to steal sensitive information, such as passwords and encryption keys, from memory.

WhatsApp Data Leak: The Importance of Staying Safe on WhatsApp

WhatsApp is a popular cross-platform instant messaging app that has over two billion monthly active users. It is known for its end-to-end encryption, which promises to protect the privacy of users' messages and calls. However, the security of WhatsApp has been called into question after several data breaches have been reported in recent years. One of the most significant data breaches involving WhatsApp occurred in May 2019, when it was revealed that spyware was used to infiltrate the phones of human rights activists and journalists.

Protecting Your Privacy: Understanding Apple Data Leaks

Apple is known for its strong commitment to privacy and security, with the company often highlighting these features as a selling point for its products. Despite this reputation, there have been several high-profile data breaches involving Apple over the years. In this article, we’ll take a look at some of the most well-known data breaches affecting Apple, what information was leaked, and what you can do to protect your privacy.

Step-by-Step Guide to Configuring IPsec VPN

Introduction Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a secure method for remote users to access resources on a private network over the public internet. One of the widely used VPN protocols is IPsec, which stands for Internet Protocol Security. It provides security for internet protocol (IP) communications by encrypting all data packets to provide confidentiality and authentication for each IP packet of the data stream. In this article, we will go through the steps of configuring an IPsec VPN.

Setting Up OpenVPN: A Comprehensive Guide with Detailed Instructions

OpenVPN is an open-source virtual private network (VPN) solution that provides a secure and encrypted connection between networks. It allows you to securely access remote networks and protect your online activities from being monitored. In this article, we’ll take a step-by-step approach to configuring OpenVPN on your system. Install and Set up OpenVPN Install OpenVPN: The first step in configuring OpenVPN is to install it on your system. On Windows systems, you can download the OpenVPN client from the official website and follow the installation instructions.
Let's Encrypt CA Root Hierarchy Chain Evolution History

Let's Encrypt CA Root Hierarchy Chain Evolution History

2015: Let’s Encrypt Root CA Initial Setup In 2015, Let’s Encrypt have three CA certificates: ISRG Root X1 Certificate Let’s Encrypt Intermediate X1 CA Certificate Let’s Encrypt Intermediate X2 CA Certificate Let’s Encrypt will issue certificates to subscribers from its intermediate CAs, allowing Let’s Encrypt to keep root CA safely offline. IdenTrust will cross-sign Let’s Encrypt intermediates. This allow our end certificates to be accepted by all major browsers while Let’s Encrypt propagate its own root.

Zero Trust Architecture in Microsoft and Google BeyondCorp

Zero Trust Architecture in Microsoft By 2020, Microsoft identified four core scenarios to achieve zero trust. These scenarios satisfy the requirements for strong identity, enrollment in device management, and device health validation. It also made way for alternative access for un-managed devices and validation for application health. The initial scope for implementing zero trust focused on common corporate services used in the Microsoft enterprise by information workers, employees, partners, and vendors.
What is BIP-39 and wordlists

What is BIP-39 and wordlists

What is BIP-39 BIP is abbreviation of Bitcoin Improvement Proposals. See full list of at BIP-39 describes the implementation of a mnemonic code or mnemonic sentence – a group of easy to remember words – for the generation of deterministic wallets. It consists of two parts: generating the mnemonic and converting it into a binary seed. BIP-39 mnemonic phrase (a group of easy to remember words) to serve as a back up to recover your wallet and coins in the event your wallet becomes compromised, lost, or destroyed.

Traditional VPN v.s. Zero Trust Architecture

Introduction To gain access to enterprise resources, the traditional solution architecture is use VPN. For today’s cloud services, there is also zero trust architecture. If you have on-premises resources, using a traditional VPN-based remote access architecture is one way of balancing remote usability with the risk of compromise. If you have few or no on-premises services, the VPN may not required, the zero trust architecture can be very effective. If you are designing a new network, consider following the zero trust network approach instead.
GDPR and CCPA Comprehensive Comparison

GDPR and CCPA Comprehensive Comparison

GDPR and CCPA Introduction The EU General Data Protection Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2016/679) (GDPR) took effect on May 25, 2018 and replaced the EU Directive and its member state implementing laws. On June 28, 2018, California became the first U.S. state with a comprehensive consumer privacy law when it enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA), which becomes effective January 1, 2020, with some exceptions (Cal. Civ. Code §§ 1798.

12 Security Principles for Securing Devices

There are 12 principles for securing devices from The EUD Security Framework 1, published in 2013, all of which must be considered when deploying a particular solution. These principles provide the basis for guidance for securing devices. Data-in-transit protection Data should be protected as it transits from the end user device to any services the end user device uses. IPsec VPNs provide the most standards-compliant way of doing this, but TLS VPNs or per-app TLS connections can also be used.

CCPA Definitions

CCPA Introduction California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA), which becomes effective January 1, 2020, with some exceptions (Cal. Civ. Code §§ 1798.100-1798.199). Given their comprehensiveness and broad reaches, each law may have significant impact on entities that collect and process personal data. The CCPA grants California resident’s new rights regarding their personal information and imposes various data protection duties on certain entities conducting business in California. While it incorporates several GDPR concepts, such as the rights of access, portability, and data deletion, there are several areas where the CCPA requirements are more specific than those of the GDPR or where the GDPR goes beyond the CCPA requirements.
GDPR What You Need to Know

GDPR What You Need to Know

What Is the GDPR? The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a major law established in 2018 by the European Union (EU) to protect personal data. The law in the European Economic Area (EEA)—that’s the EU plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway—recognizes data protection as a fundamental right. The GDPR is the most comprehensive data protection law in the world, and it applies to every company that is based in the EEA and/or offers its goods or services to or monitors the behavior of individuals in the EEA.

How to Exercise Your CCPA Rights with Sample Form Letter

Right To Non-Discrimination Per California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), Businesses cannot deny goods or services, charge you a different price, or provide a different level or quality of goods or services just because you exercised your rights under the CCPA. However, if you refuse to provide your personal information to a business or ask it to delete or stop selling your personal information, and that personal information or sale is necessary for the business to provide you with goods or services, the business may not be able to complete that transaction.

Privacy By Design Principles and Practices

Introduction What Is Privacy by Design? Today, privacy is not only an ethical imperative, but also a basic human right. And Privacy by Design is a way of reinforcing that human right. Privacy by Design is the concept of building privacy into everything we do. In our interconnected world, where personal information is shared freely, privacy is more important than ever. Inherent in the concept of Privacy by Design is the feature of Privacy by Default, which means that the strictest privacy settings should apply by default to business activities and processes, without any action required from the end user.

Certificate Revoke: Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Structure File Format and OpenSSL CRL Examples Decode CRL

CRL Introduction CRLs (Certificate Revoke List) are signed data structures that contain a list of revoked certificates. The integrity and authenticity of the CRL is provided by the digital signature appended to the CRL. The signer of the CRL is typically the same entity that signed the issued certificate. CRL is defined in RFC 5280: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile CRL File Format CRL encode in X509 format, CRL v2 structure as below:

Certificate Revoke: Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) With Example Request/Response

OCSP Introduction The Online Certificate Status Protocol ( OCSP) is documented in the RFC 6960: X.509 Internet Public Key Infrastructure Online Certificate Status Protocol. OCSP is a relatively simple request/response protocol useful in determining the current status of a digital certificate without requiring CRLs. OCSP encoded in ASN.1. OCSP Request An OCSP request contains the following data: protocol version (currently only Version 1 is defined). service request. one or more target certificate identifier.

End-to-end encryption introduction

Everything you should know about End-to-end encryption. What is End-to-end encryption End-to-end encryption (E2EE) is a system of communication where only the communicating users can read the messages. In principle, it prevents potential eavesdroppers – including telecom providers, Internet providers, and even the provider of the communication service – from being able to access the cryptographic keys needed to decrypt the conversation. In many messaging systems, including email and many chat networks, messages pass through intermediaries and are stored by a third party, from which they are retrieved by the recipient.

Install shadowsocks-libev with simple-obfs on Raspberrypi Buster

Introduction Shadowsocks-libev is a lightweight secured SOCKS5 proxy for embedded devices and low-end boxes. Shadowsocks-libev can run on OpenWRT routers, raspberrypi. Simple-obfs is a simple obfuscating tool, designed as plugin server of shadowsocks. It can pretend your shadowsocks traffic as http traffic and not recognized by firewall. This article show how to install Shadowsocks-libev and Simple-obfs on raspberrypi buster. It should also apply to all Debian Linux running on Buster.

End to End Encrypted Cloud Storage Apps

Introduction With end to end encrypted cloud storage, file is encrypted before upload to cloud service provider. Only you hold the key to decrypt your files, even service provider can not decrypt your files. Note: Due to natural of end to end encryption, if you lost your key, there is no way to recover and you can not decrypt your encrypted files. Hint: If the end to end encryption service provide provide a way to restore your password, that means the service provider store your encryption key somewhere, to avoid data leak avoid those service providers.