Let's Encrypt CA Root Hierarchy Chain Evolution History

Let's Encrypt CA Root Hierarchy Chain Evolution History

2015: Let’s Encrypt Root CA Initial Setup In 2015, Let’s Encrypt have three CA certificates: ISRG Root X1 Certificate Let’s Encrypt Intermediate X1 CA Certificate Let’s Encrypt Intermediate X2 CA Certificate Let’s Encrypt will issue certificates to subscribers from its intermediate CAs, allowing Let’s Encrypt to keep root CA safely offline. IdenTrust will cross-sign Let’s Encrypt intermediates. This allow our end certificates to be accepted by all major browsers while Let’s Encrypt propagate its own root.

Zero Trust Architecture in Microsoft and Google BeyondCorp

Zero Trust Architecture in Microsoft By 2020, Microsoft identified four core scenarios to achieve zero trust. These scenarios satisfy the requirements for strong identity, enrollment in device management, and device health validation. It also made way for alternative access for un-managed devices and validation for application health. The initial scope for implementing zero trust focused on common corporate services used in the Microsoft enterprise by information workers, employees, partners, and vendors.
What is BIP-39 and wordlists

What is BIP-39 and wordlists

What is BIP-39 BIP is abbreviation of Bitcoin Improvement Proposals. See full list of at https://github.com/bitcoin/bips BIP-39 describes the implementation of a mnemonic code or mnemonic sentence – a group of easy to remember words – for the generation of deterministic wallets. It consists of two parts: generating the mnemonic and converting it into a binary seed. BIP-39 mnemonic phrase (a group of easy to remember words) to serve as a back up to recover your wallet and coins in the event your wallet becomes compromised, lost, or destroyed.

Traditional VPN v.s. Zero Trust Architecture

Introduction To gain access to enterprise resources, the traditional solution architecture is use VPN. For today’s cloud services, there is also zero trust architecture. If you have on-premises resources, using a traditional VPN-based remote access architecture is one way of balancing remote usability with the risk of compromise. If you have few or no on-premises services, the VPN may not required, the zero trust architecture can be very effective. If you are designing a new network, consider following the zero trust network approach instead.
GDPR and CCPA Comprehensive Comparison

GDPR and CCPA Comprehensive Comparison

GDPR and CCPA Introduction The EU General Data Protection Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2016/679) (GDPR) took effect on May 25, 2018 and replaced the EU Directive and its member state implementing laws. On June 28, 2018, California became the first U.S. state with a comprehensive consumer privacy law when it enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA), which becomes effective January 1, 2020, with some exceptions (Cal. Civ. Code §§ 1798.

12 Security Principles for Securing Devices

There are 12 principles for securing devices from The EUD Security Framework 1, published in 2013, all of which must be considered when deploying a particular solution. These principles provide the basis for guidance for securing devices. Data-in-transit protection Data should be protected as it transits from the end user device to any services the end user device uses. IPsec VPNs provide the most standards-compliant way of doing this, but TLS VPNs or per-app TLS connections can also be used.

CCPA Definitions

CCPA Introduction California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA), which becomes effective January 1, 2020, with some exceptions (Cal. Civ. Code §§ 1798.100-1798.199). Given their comprehensiveness and broad reaches, each law may have significant impact on entities that collect and process personal data. The CCPA grants California resident’s new rights regarding their personal information and imposes various data protection duties on certain entities conducting business in California. While it incorporates several GDPR concepts, such as the rights of access, portability, and data deletion, there are several areas where the CCPA requirements are more specific than those of the GDPR or where the GDPR goes beyond the CCPA requirements.
GDPR What You Need to Know

GDPR What You Need to Know

What Is the GDPR? The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a major law established in 2018 by the European Union (EU) to protect personal data. The law in the European Economic Area (EEA)—that’s the EU plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway—recognizes data protection as a fundamental right. The GDPR is the most comprehensive data protection law in the world, and it applies to every company that is based in the EEA and/or offers its goods or services to or monitors the behavior of individuals in the EEA.

How to Exercise Your CCPA Rights with Sample Form Letter

Right To Non-Discrimination Per California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), Businesses cannot deny goods or services, charge you a different price, or provide a different level or quality of goods or services just because you exercised your rights under the CCPA. However, if you refuse to provide your personal information to a business or ask it to delete or stop selling your personal information, and that personal information or sale is necessary for the business to provide you with goods or services, the business may not be able to complete that transaction.

Privacy By Design Principles and Practices

Introduction What Is Privacy by Design? Today, privacy is not only an ethical imperative, but also a basic human right. And Privacy by Design is a way of reinforcing that human right. Privacy by Design is the concept of building privacy into everything we do. In our interconnected world, where personal information is shared freely, privacy is more important than ever. Inherent in the concept of Privacy by Design is the feature of Privacy by Default, which means that the strictest privacy settings should apply by default to business activities and processes, without any action required from the end user.

Certificate Revoke: Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Structure File Format and OpenSSL CRL Examples Decode CRL

CRL Introduction CRLs (Certificate Revoke List) are signed data structures that contain a list of revoked certificates. The integrity and authenticity of the CRL is provided by the digital signature appended to the CRL. The signer of the CRL is typically the same entity that signed the issued certificate. CRL is defined in RFC 5280: Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile CRL File Format CRL encode in X509 format, CRL v2 structure as below:

Certificate Revoke: Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) With Example Request/Response

OCSP Introduction The Online Certificate Status Protocol ( OCSP) is documented in the RFC 6960: X.509 Internet Public Key Infrastructure Online Certificate Status Protocol. OCSP is a relatively simple request/response protocol useful in determining the current status of a digital certificate without requiring CRLs. OCSP encoded in ASN.1. OCSP Request An OCSP request contains the following data: protocol version (currently only Version 1 is defined). service request. one or more target certificate identifier.

End-to-end encryption introduction

Everything you should know about End-to-end encryption. What is End-to-end encryption End-to-end encryption (E2EE) is a system of communication where only the communicating users can read the messages. In principle, it prevents potential eavesdroppers – including telecom providers, Internet providers, and even the provider of the communication service – from being able to access the cryptographic keys needed to decrypt the conversation. In many messaging systems, including email and many chat networks, messages pass through intermediaries and are stored by a third party, from which they are retrieved by the recipient.

Install shadowsocks-libev with simple-obfs on Raspberrypi Buster

Introduction Shadowsocks-libev is a lightweight secured SOCKS5 proxy for embedded devices and low-end boxes. Shadowsocks-libev can run on OpenWRT routers, raspberrypi. Simple-obfs is a simple obfuscating tool, designed as plugin server of shadowsocks. It can pretend your shadowsocks traffic as http traffic and not recognized by firewall. This article show how to install Shadowsocks-libev and Simple-obfs on raspberrypi buster. It should also apply to all Debian Linux running on Buster.

End to End Encrypted Cloud Storage Apps

Introduction With end to end encrypted cloud storage, file is encrypted before upload to cloud service provider. Only you hold the key to decrypt your files, even service provider can not decrypt your files. Note: Due to natural of end to end encryption, if you lost your key, there is no way to recover and you can not decrypt your encrypted files. Hint: If the end to end encryption service provide provide a way to restore your password, that means the service provider store your encryption key somewhere, to avoid data leak avoid those service providers.

End to End Encrypted Mail Services/Apps

Introduction Email encryption makes sure that your private emails can only be read by yourself and the intended recipient. With end to end encryption, All emails are encrypted before sending and stored in encrypted format. Even email provider cannot decrypt and read your emails. Recommended Services/Apps App Country Free Premium Open Source GDPR-compliant Clients Two Factor Ad Tutanota Germany 1GB 1GB. €12/year with custom domains, 5 alias.

End to End Encrypted Messaging Apps

Threema Threema is a completely independent and fully self-financed Swiss company based in the Zürich metropolitan area. End-to-end encrypts all your communication including messages, voice calls, group chats, files and even status messages. Only the intended recipient, and nobody else can read your messages. No Ad No Phone Number Required GDPR-complaint Signal Signal is an Open Source project supported by grants and donations, Signal can put users first. There are no ads, no affiliate marketers, no creepy tracking.

End to End Encrypted Note Apps

Free end to end encrypted notes apps. Standard Notes Standard Notes is a free, open-source, and completely encrypted notes app. It has Web, Mac, Windows and Linux desktop app, Android, iOS app. 100% Private. AES-256 encryption. Your notes are encrypted and secured so only you can decrypt them. No one but you can read your notes. Markdown format. Free Features AES-256 encryption. No one but you can read your notes.


VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a connection between two computers or other endpoints in which packets sent over a shared network, for example, the Internet, are automatically encrypted and decrypted by the endpoints. Although the packets are carried on a shared network, their contents are protected from unauthorized access between the endpoints. Virtual private networks are commonly used to connect branch offices to a headquarters when the cost of a physically separate communications link cannot be justified, or to allow workers to access their company network across the Internet when they are not on the premises.