Nostr protocol in a single page


Page content


NIPs stand for Nostr Implementation Possibilities. They exist to document what may be implemented by Nostr -compatible relay and client software.


Event Kinds

1Short Text Note1
2Recommend Relay
4Encrypted Direct Messages4
5Event Deletion9
8Badge Award58
16Generic Repost18
40Channel Creation28
41Channel Metadata28
42Channel Message28
43Channel Hide Message28
44Channel Mute User28
1063File Metadata94
1311Live Chat Message53
4550Community Post Approval72
9041Zap Goal75
9734Zap Request57
10000Mute List51
10001Pin List51
10002Relay List Metadata65
13194Wallet Info47
22242Client Authentication42
23194Wallet Request47
23195Wallet Response47
24133Nostr Connect46
27235HTTP Auth98
30000Categorized People List51
30001Categorized Bookmark List51
30008Profile Badges58
30009Badge Definition58
30017Create or update a stall15
30018Create or update a product15
30023Long-form Content23
30024Draft Long-form Content23
30078Application-specific Data78
30311Live Event53
30315User Statuses38
30402Classified Listing99
30403Draft Classified Listing99
31922Date-Based Calendar Event52
31923Time-Based Calendar Event52
31925Calendar Event RSVP52
31989Handler recommendation89
31990Handler information89
34550Community Definition72

Message types

Client to Relay

EVENTused to publish events01
REQused to request events and subscribe to new updates01
CLOSEused to stop previous subscriptions01
AUTHused to send authentication events42
COUNTused to request event counts45

Relay to Client

EOSEused to notify clients all stored events have been sent01
EVENTused to send events requested to clients01
NOTICEused to send human-readable messages to clients01
OKused to notify clients if an EVENT was successful01
AUTHused to send authentication challenges42
COUNTused to send requested event counts to clients45

Please update these lists when proposing NIPs introducing new event kinds.

Standardized Tags

namevalueother parametersNIP
eevent id (hex)relay URL, marker01 , 10
ppubkey (hex)relay URL, petname01 , 02
acoordinates to an eventrelay URL01
kkind number (string)18 , 72
llabel, label namespaceannotations32
Llabel namespace32
mMIME type94
ra reference (URL, etc)petname
rrelay urlmarker65
amountmillisatoshis, stringified57
bolt11bolt11 invoice57
challengechallenge string42
delegationpubkey, conditions, delegation token26
descriptioninvoice/badge description57 , 58
emojishortcode, image URL30
expirationunix timestamp (string)40
goalevent id (hex)relay URL75
imageimage URLdimensions in pixels23 , 58
lnurlbech32 encoded lnurl57
locationlocation string52 , 99
namebadge name58
preimagehash of bolt11 invoice57
pricepricecurrency, frequency99
proxyexternal IDprotocol48
published_atunix timestamp (string)23
relayrelay url42
relaysrelay list57
summaryarticle summary23
thumbbadge thumbnaildimensions in pixels58
titlearticle title23
zappubkey (hex), relay URLweight57

Criteria for acceptance of NIPs

  1. They should be implemented in at least two clients and one relay – when applicable.
  2. They should make sense.
  3. They should be optional and backwards-compatible: care must be taken such that clients and relays that choose to not implement them do not stop working when interacting with the ones that choose to.
  4. There should be no more than one way of doing the same thing.
  5. Other rules will be made up when necessary.

Mailing Lists

The nostr ecosystem is getting large with many different organizations, relays and clients. Following the nips repo on github is becoming more difficult and noisy. To coordinate on protocol development outside of github, there are mailing lists where you can work on NIPs before submitting them here:


All NIPs are public domain.


Basic protocol flow description

draft mandatory author:fiatjaf author:distbit author:scsibug author:kukks author:jb55 author:semisol author:cameri author:Giszmo

This NIP defines the basic protocol that should be implemented by everybody. New NIPs may add new optional (or mandatory) fields and messages and features to the structures and flows described here.

Events and signatures

Each user has a keypair. Signatures, public key, and encodings are done according to the Schnorr signatures standard for the curve secp256k1 .

The only object type that exists is the event, which has the following format on the wire:

  "id": <32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded sha256 of the serialized event data>,
  "pubkey": <32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded public key of the event creator>,
  "created_at": <unix timestamp in seconds>,
  "kind": <integer between 0 and 65535>,
  "tags": [
    [<arbitrary string>...],
  "content": <arbitrary string>,
  "sig": <64-bytes lowercase hex of the signature of the sha256 hash of the serialized event data, which is the same as the "id" field>

To obtain the, we sha256 the serialized event. The serialization is done over the UTF-8 JSON-serialized string (with no white space or line breaks) of the following structure:

  <pubkey, as a lowercase hex string>,
  <created_at, as a number>,
  <kind, as a number>,
  <tags, as an array of arrays of non-null strings>,
  <content, as a string>


Each tag is an array of strings of arbitrary size, with some conventions around them. Take a look at the example below:

  "tags": [
    ["e", "5c83da77af1dec6d7289834998ad7aafbd9e2191396d75ec3cc27f5a77226f36", "wss://"],
    ["p", "f7234bd4c1394dda46d09f35bd384dd30cc552ad5541990f98844fb06676e9ca"],
    ["a", "30023:f7234bd4c1394dda46d09f35bd384dd30cc552ad5541990f98844fb06676e9ca:abcd", "wss://"],
    ["alt", "reply"],

The first element of the tag array is referred to as the tag name or key and the second as the tag value. So we can safely say that the event above has an e tag set to "5c83da77af1dec6d7289834998ad7aafbd9e2191396d75ec3cc27f5a77226f36", an alt tag set to "reply" and so on. All elements after the second do not have a conventional name.

This NIP defines 3 standard tags that can be used across all event kinds with the same meaning. They are as follows:

  • The e tag, used to refer to an event: ["e", <32-bytes lowercase hex of the id of another event>, <recommended relay URL, optional>]
  • The p tag, used to refer to another user: ["p", <32-bytes lowercase hex of a pubkey>, <recommended relay URL, optional>]
  • The a tag, used to refer to a (maybe parameterized) replaceable event
    • for a parameterized replaceable event: ["a", <kind integer>:<32-bytes lowercase hex of a pubkey>:<d tag value>, <recommended relay URL, optional>]
    • for a non-parameterized replaceable event: ["a", <kind integer>:<32-bytes lowercase hex of a pubkey>:, <recommended relay URL, optional>]

As a convention, all single-letter (only english alphabet letters: a-z, A-Z) key tags are expected to be indexed by relays, such that it is possible, for example, to query or subscribe to events that reference the event "5c83da77af1dec6d7289834998ad7aafbd9e2191396d75ec3cc27f5a77226f36" by using the {"#e": "5c83da77af1dec6d7289834998ad7aafbd9e2191396d75ec3cc27f5a77226f36"} filter.


Kinds specify how clients should interpret the meaning of each event and the other fields of each event (e.g. an "r" tag may have a meaning in an event of kind 1 and an entirely different meaning in an event of kind 10002). Each NIP may define the meaning of a set of kinds that weren’t defined elsewhere. This NIP defines two basic kinds:

  • 0: metadata: the content is set to a stringified JSON object {name: <username>, about: <string>, picture: <url, string>} describing the user who created the event. A relay may delete older events once it gets a new one for the same pubkey.
  • 1: text note: the content is set to the plaintext content of a note (anything the user wants to say). Content that must be parsed, such as Markdown and HTML, should not be used. Clients should also not parse content as those.

And also a convention for kind ranges that allow for easier experimentation and flexibility of relay implementation:

  • for kind n such that 1000 <= n < 10000, events are regular, which means they’re all expected to be stored by relays.
  • for kind n such that 10000 <= n < 20000 || n == 0 || n == 3, events are replaceable, which means that, for each combination of pubkey and kind, only the latest event is expected to (SHOULD) be stored by relays, older versions are expected to be discarded.
  • for kind n such that 20000 <= n < 30000, events are ephemeral, which means they are not expected to be stored by relays.
  • for kind n such that 30000 <= n < 40000, events are parameterized replaceable, which means that, for each combination of pubkey, kind and the d tag’s first value, only the latest event is expected to be stored by relays, older versions are expected to be discarded.

In case of replaceable events with the same timestamp, the event with the lowest id (first in lexical order) should be retained, and the other discarded.

These are just conventions and relay implementations may differ.

Communication between clients and relays

Relays expose a websocket endpoint to which clients can connect. Clients SHOULD open a single websocket connection to each relay and use it for all their subscriptions. Relays MAY limit number of connections from specific IP/client/etc.

Meaning of WebSocket status codes

  • When a websocket is closed by the relay with a status code 4000 that means the client shouldn’t try to connect again.

From client to relay: sending events and creating subscriptions

Clients can send 3 types of messages, which must be JSON arrays, according to the following patterns:

  • ["EVENT", <event JSON as defined above>], used to publish events.
  • ["REQ", <subscription_id>, <filters JSON>...], used to request events and subscribe to new updates.
  • ["CLOSE", <subscription_id>], used to stop previous subscriptions.

<subscription_id> is an arbitrary, non-empty string of max length 64 chars, that should be used to represent a subscription. Relays should manage <subscription_id>s independently for each WebSocket connection; even if <subscription_id>s are the same string, they should be treated as different subscriptions for different connections.

<filters> is a JSON object that determines what events will be sent in that subscription, it can have the following attributes:

  "ids": <a list of event ids>,
  "authors": <a list of lowercase pubkeys, the pubkey of an event must be one of these>,
  "kinds": <a list of a kind numbers>,
  "#<single-letter (a-zA-Z)>": <a list of tag values, for #e  a list of event ids, for #p  a list of event pubkeys etc>,
  "since": <an integer unix timestamp in seconds, events must be newer than this to pass>,
  "until": <an integer unix timestamp in seconds, events must be older than this to pass>,
  "limit": <maximum number of events relays SHOULD return in the initial query>

Upon receiving a REQ message, the relay SHOULD query its internal database and return events that match the filter, then store that filter and send again all future events it receives to that same websocket until the websocket is closed. The CLOSE event is received with the same <subscription_id> or a new REQ is sent using the same <subscription_id>, in which case relay MUST overwrite the previous subscription.

Filter attributes containing lists (ids, authors, kinds and tag filters like #e) are JSON arrays with one or more values. At least one of the arrays’ values must match the relevant field in an event for the condition to be considered a match. For scalar event attributes such as authors and kind, the attribute from the event must be contained in the filter list. In the case of tag attributes such as #e, for which an event may have multiple values, the event and filter condition values must have at least one item in common.

The ids, authors, #e and #p filter lists MUST contain exact 64-character lowercase hex values.

The since and until properties can be used to specify the time range of events returned in the subscription. If a filter includes the since property, events with created_at greater than or equal to since are considered to match the filter. The until property is similar except that created_at must be less than or equal to until. In short, an event matches a filter if since <= created_at <= until holds.

All conditions of a filter that are specified must match for an event for it to pass the filter, i.e., multiple conditions are interpreted as && conditions.

A REQ message may contain multiple filters. In this case, events that match any of the filters are to be returned, i.e., multiple filters are to be interpreted as || conditions.

The limit property of a filter is only valid for the initial query and MUST be ignored afterwards. When limit: n is present it is assumed that the events returned in the initial query will be the last n events ordered by the created_at. It is safe to return less events than limit specifies, but it is expected that relays do not return (much) more events than requested so clients don’t get unnecessarily overwhelmed by data.

From relay to client: sending events and notices

Relays can send 4 types of messages, which must also be JSON arrays, according to the following patterns:

  • ["EVENT", <subscription_id>, <event JSON as defined above>], used to send events requested by clients.
  • ["OK", <event_id>, <true|false>, <message>], used to indicate acceptance or denial of an EVENT message.
  • ["EOSE", <subscription_id>], used to indicate the end of stored events and the beginning of events newly received in real-time.
  • ["NOTICE", <message>], used to send human-readable error messages or other things to clients.

This NIP defines no rules for how NOTICE messages should be sent or treated.

  • EVENT messages MUST be sent only with a subscription ID related to a subscription previously initiated by the client (using the REQ message above).

  • OK messages MUST be sent in response to EVENT messages received from clients, they must have the 3rd parameter set to true when an event has been accepted by the relay, false otherwise. The 4th parameter MAY be empty when the 3rd is true, otherwise it MUST be a string containing a machine-readable single-word prefix followed by a : and then a human-readable message. The standardized machine-readable prefixes are: duplicate, pow, blocked, rate-limited, invalid, and error for when none of that fits. Some examples:

    • ["OK", "b1a649ebe8...", true, ""]
    • ["OK", "b1a649ebe8...", true, "pow: difficulty 25>=24"]
    • ["OK", "b1a649ebe8...", true, "duplicate: already have this event"]
    • ["OK", "b1a649ebe8...", false, "blocked: you are banned from posting here"]
    • ["OK", "b1a649ebe8...", false, "blocked: please register your pubkey at"]
    • ["OK", "b1a649ebe8...", false, "rate-limited: slow down there chief"]
    • ["OK", "b1a649ebe8...", false, "invalid: event creation date is too far off from the current time. Is your system clock in sync?"]
    • ["OK", "b1a649ebe8...", false, "pow: difficulty 26 is less than 30"]
    • ["OK", "b1a649ebe8...", false, "error: could not connect to the database"]


Contact List and Petnames

final optional author:fiatjaf author:arcbtc

A special event with kind 3, meaning “contact list” is defined as having a list of p tags, one for each of the followed/known profiles one is following.

Each tag entry should contain the key for the profile, a relay URL where events from that key can be found (can be set to an empty string if not needed), and a local name (or “petname”) for that profile (can also be set to an empty string or not provided), i.e., ["p", <32-bytes hex key>, <main relay URL>, <petname>]. The content can be anything and should be ignored.

For example:

  "kind": 3,
  "tags": [
    ["p", "91cf9..4e5ca", "wss://", "alice"],
    ["p", "14aeb..8dad4", "wss://", "bob"],
    ["p", "612ae..e610f", "ws://", "carol"]
  "content": "",
  ...other fields

Every new contact list that gets published overwrites the past ones, so it should contain all entries. Relays and clients SHOULD delete past contact lists as soon as they receive a new one.


Contact list backup

If one believes a relay will store their events for sufficient time, they can use this kind-3 event to backup their following list and recover on a different device.

Profile discovery and context augmentation

A client may rely on the kind-3 event to display a list of followed people by profiles one is browsing; make lists of suggestions on who to follow based on the contact lists of other people one might be following or browsing; or show the data in other contexts.

Relay sharing

A client may publish a full list of contacts with good relays for each of their contacts so other clients may use these to update their internal relay lists if needed, increasing censorship-resistance.

Petname scheme

The data from these contact lists can be used by clients to construct local “petname” tables derived from other people’s contact lists. This alleviates the need for global human-readable names. For example:

A user has an internal contact list that says

  ["p", "21df6d143fb96c2ec9d63726bf9edc71", "", "erin"]

And receives two contact lists, one from 21df6d143fb96c2ec9d63726bf9edc71 that says

  ["p", "a8bb3d884d5d90b413d9891fe4c4e46d", "", "david"]

and another from a8bb3d884d5d90b413d9891fe4c4e46d that says

  ["p", "f57f54057d2a7af0efecc8b0b66f5708", "", "frank"]

When the user sees 21df6d143fb96c2ec9d63726bf9edc71 the client can show erin instead; When the user sees a8bb3d884d5d90b413d9891fe4c4e46d the client can show david.erin instead; When the user sees f57f54057d2a7af0efecc8b0b66f5708 the client can show frank.david.erin instead.


OpenTimestamps Attestations for Events

draft optional author:fiatjaf

When there is an OTS available it MAY be included in the existing event body under the ots key:

  "id": ...,
  "kind": ...,
  "ots": <base64-encoded OTS file data>

The event id MUST be used as the raw hash to be included in the OpenTimestamps merkle tree.

The attestation can be either provided by relays automatically (and the OTS binary contents just appended to the events it receives) or by clients themselves when they first upload the event to relays — and used by clients to show that an event is really “at least as old as [OTS date]”.


Encrypted Direct Message

final optional author:arcbtc

A special event with kind 4, meaning “encrypted direct message”. It is supposed to have the following attributes:

content MUST be equal to the base64-encoded, aes-256-cbc encrypted string of anything a user wants to write, encrypted using a shared cipher generated by combining the recipient’s public-key with the sender’s private-key; this appended by the base64-encoded initialization vector as if it was a querystring parameter named “iv”. The format is the following: "content": "<encrypted_text>?iv=<initialization_vector>".

tags MUST contain an entry identifying the receiver of the message (such that relays may naturally forward this event to them), in the form ["p", "<pubkey, as a hex string>"].

tags MAY contain an entry identifying the previous message in a conversation or a message we are explicitly replying to (such that contextual, more organized conversations may happen), in the form ["e", "<event_id>"].

Note: By default in the libsecp256k1 ECDH implementation, the secret is the SHA256 hash of the shared point (both X and Y coordinates). In Nostr, only the X coordinate of the shared point is used as the secret and it is NOT hashed. If using libsecp256k1, a custom function that copies the X coordinate must be passed as the hashfp argument in secp256k1_ecdh. See here .

Code sample for generating such an event in JavaScript:

import crypto from 'crypto'
import * as secp from '@noble/secp256k1'

let sharedPoint = secp.getSharedSecret(ourPrivateKey, '02' + theirPublicKey)
let sharedX = sharedPoint.slice(1, 33)

let iv = crypto.randomFillSync(new Uint8Array(16))
var cipher = crypto.createCipheriv(
let encryptedMessage = cipher.update(text, 'utf8', 'base64')
encryptedMessage +='base64')
let ivBase64 = Buffer.from(iv.buffer).toString('base64')

let event = {
  pubkey: ourPubKey,
  created_at: Math.floor( / 1000),
  kind: 4,
  tags: [['p', theirPublicKey]],
  content: encryptedMessage + '?iv=' + ivBase64

Security Warning

This standard does not go anywhere near what is considered the state-of-the-art in encrypted communication between peers, and it leaks metadata in the events, therefore it must not be used for anything you really need to keep secret, and only with relays that use AUTH to restrict who can fetch your kind:4 events.

Client Implementation Warning

Clients should not search and replace public key or note references from the .content. If processed like a regular text note (where @npub... is replaced with #[0] with a ["p", "..."] tag) the tags are leaked and the mentioned user will receive the message in their inbox.


Mapping Nostr keys to DNS-based internet identifiers

final optional author:fiatjaf author:mikedilger

On events of kind 0 (metadata) one can specify the key "nip05" with an internet identifier (an email-like address) as the value. Although there is a link to a very liberal “internet identifier” specification above, NIP-05 assumes the <local-part> part will be restricted to the characters a-z0-9-_., case-insensitive.

Upon seeing that, the client splits the identifier into <local-part> and <domain> and use these values to make a GET request to https://<domain>/.well-known/nostr.json?name=<local-part>.

The result should be a JSON document object with a key "names" that should then be a mapping of names to hex formatted public keys. If the public key for the given <name> matches the pubkey from the metadata event, the client then concludes that the given pubkey can indeed be referenced by its identifier.


If a client sees an event like this:

  "pubkey": "b0635d6a9851d3aed0cd6c495b282167acf761729078d975fc341b22650b07b9",
  "kind": 0,
  "content": "{\"name\": \"bob\", \"nip05\": \"\"}"

It will make a GET request to and get back a response that will look like

  "names": {
    "bob": "b0635d6a9851d3aed0cd6c495b282167acf761729078d975fc341b22650b07b9"

or with the optional "relays" attribute:

  "names": {
    "bob": "b0635d6a9851d3aed0cd6c495b282167acf761729078d975fc341b22650b07b9"
  "relays": {
    "b0635d6a9851d3aed0cd6c495b282167acf761729078d975fc341b22650b07b9": [ "wss://", "wss://" ]

If the pubkey matches the one given in "names" (as in the example above) that means the association is right and the "nip05" identifier is valid and can be displayed.

The optional "relays" attribute may contain an object with public keys as properties and arrays of relay URLs as values. When present, that can be used to help clients learn in which relays the specific user may be found. Web servers which serve /.well-known/nostr.json files dynamically based on the query string SHOULD also serve the relays data for any name they serve in the same reply when that is available.

Finding users from their NIP-05 identifier

A client may implement support for finding users’ public keys from internet identifiers, the flow is the same as above, but reversed: first the client fetches the well-known URL and from there it gets the public key of the user, then it tries to fetch the kind 0 event for that user and check if it has a matching "nip05".


Clients must always follow public keys, not NIP-05 addresses

For example, if after finding that has the public key abc...def, the user clicks a button to follow that profile, the client must keep a primary reference to abc...def, not If, for any reason, the address starts returning the public key 1d2...e3f at any time in the future, the client must not replace abc...def in his list of followed profiles for the user (but it should stop displaying “ ” for that user, as that will have become an invalid "nip05" property).

Public keys must be in hex format

Keys must be returned in hex format. Keys in NIP-19 npub format are only meant to be used for display in client UIs, not in this NIP.

User Discovery implementation suggestion

A client can also use this to allow users to search other profiles. If a client has a search box or something like that, a user may be able to type “ ” there and the client would recognize that and do the proper queries to obtain a pubkey and suggest that to the user.

Showing just the domain as an identifier

Clients may treat the identifier _@domain as the “root” identifier, and choose to display it as just the <domain>. For example, if Bob owns, he may not want an identifier like as that is redundant. Instead, Bob can use the identifier and expect Nostr clients to show and treat that as just for all purposes.

Reasoning for the /.well-known/nostr.json?name=<local-part> format

By adding the <local-part> as a query string instead of as part of the path, the protocol can support both dynamic servers that can generate JSON on-demand and static servers with a JSON file in it that may contain multiple names.

Allowing access from JavaScript apps

JavaScript Nostr apps may be restricted by browser CORS policies that prevent them from accessing /.well-known/nostr.json on the user’s domain. When CORS prevents JS from loading a resource, the JS program sees it as a network failure identical to the resource not existing, so it is not possible for a pure-JS app to tell the user for certain that the failure was caused by a CORS issue. JS Nostr apps that see network failures requesting /.well-known/nostr.json files may want to recommend to users that they check the CORS policy of their servers, e.g.:

$ curl -sI | grep -i ^Access-Control
Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *

Users should ensure that their /.well-known/nostr.json is served with the HTTP header Access-Control-Allow-Origin: * to ensure it can be validated by pure JS apps running in modern browsers.

Security Constraints

The /.well-known/nostr.json endpoint MUST NOT return any HTTP redirects.

Fetchers MUST ignore any HTTP redirects given by the /.well-known/nostr.json endpoint.


Basic key derivation from mnemonic seed phrase

draft optional author:fiatjaf

BIP39 is used to generate mnemonic seed words and derive a binary seed from them.

BIP32 is used to derive the path m/44'/1237'/<account>'/0/0 (according to the Nostr entry on SLIP44 ).

A basic client can simply use an account of 0 to derive a single key. For more advanced use-cases you can increment account, allowing generation of practically infinite keys from the 5-level path with hardened derivation.

Other types of clients can still get fancy and use other derivation paths for their own other purposes.


window.nostr capability for web browsers

draft optional author:fiatjaf

The window.nostr object may be made available by web browsers or extensions and websites or web-apps may make use of it after checking its availability.

That object must define the following methods:

async window.nostr.getPublicKey(): string // returns a public key as hex
async window.nostr.signEvent(event: Event): Event // takes an event object, adds `id`, `pubkey` and `sig` and returns it

Aside from these two basic above, the following functions can also be implemented optionally:

async window.nostr.getRelays(): { [url: string]: {read: boolean, write: boolean} } // returns a basic map of relay urls to relay policies
async window.nostr.nip04.encrypt(pubkey, plaintext): string // returns ciphertext and iv as specified in nip-04
async window.nostr.nip04.decrypt(pubkey, ciphertext): string // takes ciphertext and iv as specified in nip-04


Warning unrecommended: deprecated in favor of NIP-27


Handling Mentions

final unrecommended optional author:fiatjaf author:scsibug

This document standardizes the treatment given by clients of inline mentions of other events and pubkeys inside the content of text_notes.

Clients that want to allow tagged mentions they MUST show an autocomplete component or something analogous to that whenever the user starts typing a special key (for example, “@”) or presses some button to include a mention etc – or these clients can come up with other ways to unambiguously differentiate between mentions and normal text.

Once a mention is identified, for example, the pubkey 27866e9d854c78ae625b867eefdfa9580434bc3e675be08d2acb526610d96fbe, the client MUST add that pubkey to the .tags with the tag p, then replace its textual reference (inside .content) with the notation #[index] in which “index” is equal to the 0-based index of the related tag in the tags array.

The same process applies for mentioning event IDs.

A client that receives a text_note event with such #[index] mentions in its .content CAN do a search-and-replace using the actual contents from the .tags array with the actual pubkey or event ID that is mentioned, doing any desired context augmentation (for example, linking to the pubkey or showing a preview of the mentioned event contents) it wants in the process.

Where #[index] has an index that is outside the range of the tags array or points to a tag that is not an e or p tag or a tag otherwise declared to support this notation, the client MUST NOT perform such replacement or augmentation, but instead display it as normal text.


Event Deletion

draft optional author:scsibug

A special event with kind 5, meaning “deletion” is defined as having a list of one or more e tags, each referencing an event the author is requesting to be deleted.

Each tag entry must contain an “e” event id and/or NIP-33 a tags intended for deletion.

The event’s content field MAY contain a text note describing the reason for the deletion.

For example:

  "kind": 5,
  "pubkey": <32-bytes hex-encoded public key of the event creator>,
  "tags": [
    ["e", "dcd59..464a2"],
    ["e", "968c5..ad7a4"],
    ["a", "<kind>:<pubkey>:<d-identifier>"]
  "content": "these posts were published by accident",
  ...other fields

Relays SHOULD delete or stop publishing any referenced events that have an identical pubkey as the deletion request. Clients SHOULD hide or otherwise indicate a deletion status for referenced events.

Relays SHOULD continue to publish/share the deletion events indefinitely, as clients may already have the event that’s intended to be deleted. Additionally, clients SHOULD broadcast deletion events to other relays which don’t have it.

Client Usage

Clients MAY choose to fully hide any events that are referenced by valid deletion events. This includes text notes, direct messages, or other yet-to-be defined event kinds. Alternatively, they MAY show the event along with an icon or other indication that the author has “disowned” the event. The content field MAY also be used to replace the deleted events’ own content, although a user interface should clearly indicate that this is a deletion reason, not the original content.

A client MUST validate that each event pubkey referenced in the e tag of the deletion request is identical to the deletion request pubkey, before hiding or deleting any event. Relays can not, in general, perform this validation and should not be treated as authoritative.

Clients display the deletion event itself in any way they choose, e.g., not at all, or with a prominent notice.

Relay Usage

Relays MAY validate that a deletion event only references events that have the same pubkey as the deletion itself, however this is not required since relays may not have knowledge of all referenced events.

Deleting a Deletion

Publishing a deletion event against a deletion has no effect. Clients and relays are not obliged to support “undelete” functionality.


On “e” and “p” tags in Text Events (kind 1).

draft optional author:unclebobmartin


This NIP describes how to use “e” and “p” tags in text events, especially those that are replies to other text events. It helps clients thread the replies into a tree rooted at the original event.

Positional “e” tags (DEPRECATED)

This scheme is in common use; but should be considered deprecated.

["e", <event-id>, <relay-url>] as per NIP-01.


  • <event-id> is the id of the event being referenced.
  • <relay-url> is the URL of a recommended relay associated with the reference. Many clients treat this field as optional.

The positions of the “e” tags within the event denote specific meanings as follows:

  • No “e” tag:
    This event is not a reply to, nor does it refer to, any other event.

  • One “e” tag:
    ["e", <id>]: The id of the event to which this event is a reply.

  • Two “e” tags: ["e", <root-id>], ["e", <reply-id>]
    <root-id> is the id of the event at the root of the reply chain. <reply-id> is the id of the article to which this event is a reply.

  • Many “e” tags: ["e", <root-id>] ["e", <mention-id>], …, ["e", <reply-id>]
    There may be any number of <mention-ids>. These are the ids of events which may, or may not be in the reply chain. They are citings from this event. root-id and reply-id are as above.

This scheme is deprecated because it creates ambiguities that are difficult, or impossible to resolve when an event references another but is not a reply.

Marked “e” tags (PREFERRED)

["e", <event-id>, <relay-url>, <marker>]


  • <event-id> is the id of the event being referenced.
  • <relay-url> is the URL of a recommended relay associated with the reference. Clients SHOULD add a valid <relay-URL> field, but may instead leave it as "".
  • <marker> is optional and if present is one of "reply", "root", or "mention".

Those marked with "reply" denote the id of the reply event being responded to. Those marked with "root" denote the root id of the reply thread being responded to. For top level replies (those replying directly to the root event), only the "root" marker should be used. Those marked with "mention" denote a quoted or reposted event id.

A direct reply to the root of a thread should have a single marked “e” tag of type “root”.

This scheme is preferred because it allows events to mention others without confusing them with <reply-id> or <root-id>.

The “p” tag

Used in a text event contains a list of pubkeys used to record who is involved in a reply thread.

When replying to a text event E the reply event’s “p” tags should contain all of E’s “p” tags as well as the "pubkey" of the event being replied to.

Example: Given a text event authored by a1 with “p” tags [p1, p2, p3] then the “p” tags of the reply should be [a1, p1, p2, p3] in no particular order.


Relay Information Document

draft optional author:scsibug author:doc-hex author:cameri

Relays may provide server metadata to clients to inform them of capabilities, administrative contacts, and various server attributes. This is made available as a JSON document over HTTP, on the same URI as the relay’s websocket.

When a relay receives an HTTP(s) request with an Accept header of application/nostr+json to a URI supporting WebSocket upgrades, they SHOULD return a document with the following structure.

  "name": <string identifying relay>,
  "description": <string with detailed information>,
  "pubkey": <administrative contact pubkey>,
  "contact": <administrative alternate contact>,
  "supported_nips": <a list of NIP numbers supported by the relay>,
  "software": <string identifying relay software URL>,
  "version": <string version identifier>

Any field may be omitted, and clients MUST ignore any additional fields they do not understand. Relays MUST accept CORS requests by sending Access-Control-Allow-Origin, Access-Control-Allow-Headers, and Access-Control-Allow-Methods headers.

Field Descriptions


A relay may select a name for use in client software. This is a string, and SHOULD be less than 30 characters to avoid client truncation.


Detailed plain-text information about the relay may be contained in the description string. It is recommended that this contain no markup, formatting or line breaks for word wrapping, and simply use double newline characters to separate paragraphs. There are no limitations on length.


An administrative contact may be listed with a pubkey, in the same format as Nostr events (32-byte hex for a secp256k1 public key). If a contact is listed, this provides clients with a recommended address to send encrypted direct messages (See NIP-04) to a system administrator. Expected uses of this address are to report abuse or illegal content, file bug reports, or request other technical assistance.

Relay operators have no obligation to respond to direct messages.


An alternative contact may be listed under the contact field as well, with the same purpose as pubkey. Use of a Nostr public key and direct message SHOULD be preferred over this. Contents of this field SHOULD be a URI, using schemes such as mailto or https to provide users with a means of contact.

Supported NIPs

As the Nostr protocol evolves, some functionality may only be available by relays that implement a specific NIP. This field is an array of the integer identifiers of NIPs that are implemented in the relay. Examples would include 1, for "NIP-01" and 9, for "NIP-09". Client-side NIPs SHOULD NOT be advertised, and can be ignored by clients.


The relay server implementation MAY be provided in the software attribute. If present, this MUST be a URL to the project’s homepage.


The relay MAY choose to publish its software version as a string attribute. The string format is defined by the relay implementation. It is recommended this be a version number or commit identifier.

Extra Fields

Server Limitations

These are limitations imposed by the relay on clients. Your client should expect that requests which exceed these practical limitations are rejected or fail immediately.

  "limitation": {
        "max_message_length": 16384,
        "max_subscriptions": 20,
        "max_filters": 100,
        "max_limit": 5000,
        "max_subid_length": 100,
        "max_event_tags": 100,
        "max_content_length": 8196,
        "min_pow_difficulty": 30,
        "auth_required": true,
        "payment_required": true,
  • max_message_length: this is the maximum number of bytes for incoming JSON that the relay will attempt to decode and act upon. When you send large subscriptions, you will be limited by this value. It also effectively limits the maximum size of any event. Value is calculated from [ to ] and is after UTF-8 serialization (so some unicode characters will cost 2-3 bytes). It is equal to the maximum size of the WebSocket message frame.

  • max_subscriptions: total number of subscriptions that may be active on a single websocket connection to this relay. It’s possible that authenticated clients with a (paid) relationship to the relay may have higher limits.

  • max_filters: maximum number of filter values in each subscription. Must be one or higher.

  • max_subid_length: maximum length of subscription id as a string.

  • max_limit: the relay server will clamp each filter’s limit value to this number. This means the client won’t be able to get more than this number of events from a single subscription filter. This clamping is typically done silently by the relay, but with this number, you can know that there are additional results if you narrowed your filter’s time range or other parameters.

  • max_event_tags: in any event, this is the maximum number of elements in the tags list.

  • max_content_length: maximum number of characters in the content field of any event. This is a count of unicode characters. After serializing into JSON it may be larger (in bytes), and is still subject to the max_message_length, if defined.

  • min_pow_difficulty: new events will require at least this difficulty of PoW, based on NIP-13 , or they will be rejected by this server.

  • auth_required: this relay requires NIP-42 authentication to happen before a new connection may perform any other action. Even if set to False, authentication may be required for specific actions.

  • payment_required: this relay requires payment before a new connection may perform any action.

  • created_at_lower_limit: ‘created_at’ lower limit as defined in NIP-22

  • created_at_upper_limit: ‘created_at’ upper limit as defined in NIP-22

Event Retention

There may be a cost associated with storing data forever, so relays may wish to state retention times. The values stated here are defaults for unauthenticated users and visitors. Paid users would likely have other policies.

Retention times are given in seconds, with null indicating infinity. If zero is provided, this means the event will not be stored at all, and preferably an error will be provided when those are received.

  "retention": [
    { "kinds": [0, 1, [5, 7], [40, 49]], "time": 3600 },
    { "kinds": [[40000, 49999]], "time": 100 },
    { "kinds": [[30000, 39999]], "count": 1000 },
    { "time": 3600, "count": 10000 }

retention is a list of specifications: each will apply to either all kinds, or a subset of kinds. Ranges may be specified for the kind field as a tuple of inclusive start and end values. Events of indicated kind (or all) are then limited to a count and/or time period.

It is possible to effectively blacklist Nostr-based protocols that rely on a specific kind number, by giving a retention time of zero for those kind values. While that is unfortunate, it does allow clients to discover servers that will support their protocol quickly via a single HTTP fetch.

There is no need to specify retention times for ephemeral events since they are not retained.

Content Limitations

Some relays may be governed by the arbitrary laws of a nation state. This may limit what content can be stored in cleartext on those relays. All clients are encouraged to use encryption to work around this limitation.

It is not possible to describe the limitations of each country’s laws and policies which themselves are typically vague and constantly shifting.

Therefore, this field allows the relay operator to indicate which countries’ laws might end up being enforced on them, and then indirectly on their users’ content.

Users should be able to avoid relays in countries they don’t like, and/or select relays in more favourable zones. Exposing this flexibility is up to the client software.

  "relay_countries": [ "CA", "US" ],
  • relay_countries: a list of two-level ISO country codes (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2) whose laws and policies may affect this relay. EU may be used for European Union countries.

Remember that a relay may be hosted in a country which is not the country of the legal entities who own the relay, so it’s very likely a number of countries are involved.

Community Preferences

For public text notes at least, a relay may try to foster a local community. This would encourage users to follow the global feed on that relay, in addition to their usual individual follows. To support this goal, relays MAY specify some of the following values.

  "language_tags": [ "en", "en-419" ],
  "tags": [ "sfw-only", "bitcoin-only", "anime" ],
  "posting_policy": "",
  • language_tags is an ordered list of IETF language tags indicating the major languages spoken on the relay.

  • tags is a list of limitations on the topics to be discussed. For example sfw-only indicates that only “Safe For Work” content is encouraged on this relay. This relies on assumptions of what the “work” “community” feels “safe” talking about. In time, a common set of tags may emerge that allow users to find relays that suit their needs, and client software will be able to parse these tags easily. The bitcoin-only tag indicates that any altcoin, “crypto” or blockchain comments will be ridiculed without mercy.

  • posting_policy is a link to a human-readable page which specifies the community policies for the relay. In cases where sfw-only is True, it’s important to link to a page which gets into the specifics of your posting policy.

The description field should be used to describe your community goals and values, in brief. The posting_policy is for additional detail and legal terms. Use the tags field to signify limitations on content, or topics to be discussed, which could be machine processed by appropriate client software.


Relays that require payments may want to expose their fee schedules.

  "payments_url": "https://my-relay/payments",
  "fees": {
    "admission": [{ "amount": 1000000, "unit": "msats" }],
    "subscription": [{ "amount": 5000000, "unit": "msats", "period": 2592000 }],
    "publication": [{ "kinds": [4], "amount": 100, "unit": "msats" }],


A URL pointing to an image to be used as an icon for the relay. Recommended to be squared in shape.

  "icon": "",


As of 2 May 2023 the following curl command provided these results.

>curl -H "Accept: application/nostr+json"

"description":"Eden Nostr Land - Toronto 1-01",
"icon": ""


Generic Tag Queries

final mandatory author:scsibug author:fiatjaf

Moved to NIP-01 .


Proof of Work

draft optional author:jb55 author:cameri

This NIP defines a way to generate and interpret Proof of Work for nostr notes. Proof of Work (PoW) is a way to add a proof of computational work to a note. This is a bearer proof that all relays and clients can universally validate with a small amount of code. This proof can be used as a means of spam deterrence.

difficulty is defined to be the number of leading zero bits in the NIP-01 id. For example, an id of 000000000e9d97a1ab09fc381030b346cdd7a142ad57e6df0b46dc9bef6c7e2d has a difficulty of 36 with 36 leading 0 bits.

002f... is 0000 0000 0010 1111... in binary, which has 10 leading zeroes. Do not forget to count leading zeroes for hex digits <= 7.


To generate PoW for a NIP-01 note, a nonce tag is used:

{"content": "It's just me mining my own business", "tags": [["nonce", "1", "21"]]}

When mining, the second entry to the nonce tag is updated, and then the id is recalculated (see NIP-01 ). If the id has the desired number of leading zero bits, the note has been mined. It is recommended to update the created_at as well during this process.

The third entry to the nonce tag SHOULD contain the target difficulty. This allows clients to protect against situations where bulk spammers targeting a lower difficulty get lucky and match a higher difficulty. For example, if you require 40 bits to reply to your thread and see a committed target of 30, you can safely reject it even if the note has 40 bits difficulty. Without a committed target difficulty you could not reject it. Committing to a target difficulty is something all honest miners should be ok with, and clients MAY reject a note matching a target difficulty if it is missing a difficulty commitment.

Example mined note

  "id": "000006d8c378af1779d2feebc7603a125d99eca0ccf1085959b307f64e5dd358",
  "pubkey": "a48380f4cfcc1ad5378294fcac36439770f9c878dd880ffa94bb74ea54a6f243",
  "created_at": 1651794653,
  "kind": 1,
  "tags": [
  "content": "It's just me mining my own business",
  "sig": "284622fc0a3f4f1303455d5175f7ba962a3300d136085b9566801bc2e0699de0c7e31e44c81fb40ad9049173742e904713c3594a1da0fc5d2382a25c11aba977"


Here is some reference C code for calculating the difficulty (aka number of leading zero bits) in a nostr event id:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

int countLeadingZeroes(const char *hex) {
    int count = 0;

    for (int i = 0; i < strlen(hex); i++) {
        int nibble = (int)strtol((char[]){hex[i], '\0'}, NULL, 16);
        if (nibble == 0) {
            count += 4;
        } else {
            count += __builtin_clz(nibble) - 28;

    return count;

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
    if (argc != 2) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <hex_string>\n", argv[0]);
        return 1;

    const char *hex_string = argv[1];
    int result = countLeadingZeroes(hex_string);
    printf("Leading zeroes in hex string %s: %d\n", hex_string, result);

    return 0;

Here is some JavaScript code for doing the same thing:

// hex should be a hexadecimal string (with no 0x prefix)
function countLeadingZeroes(hex) {
  let count = 0;

  for (let i = 0; i < hex.length; i++) {
    const nibble = parseInt(hex[i], 16);
    if (nibble === 0) {
      count += 4;
    } else {
      count += Math.clz32(nibble) - 28;

  return count;

Querying relays for PoW notes

If relays allow searching on prefixes, you can use this as a way to filter notes of a certain difficulty:

$ echo '["REQ", "subid", {"ids": ["000000000"]}]'  | websocat wss:// | jq -c '.[2]'
{"id":"000000000121637feeb68a06c8fa7abd25774bdedfa9b6ef648386fb3b70c387", ...}

Delegated Proof of Work

Since the NIP-01 note id does not commit to any signature, PoW can be outsourced to PoW providers, perhaps for a fee. This provides a way for clients to get their messages out to PoW-restricted relays without having to do any work themselves, which is useful for energy-constrained devices like mobile phones.


Subject tag in Text events

draft optional author:unclebobmartin

This NIP defines the use of the “subject” tag in text (kind: 1) events.
(implemented in more-speech)

["subject": <string>]

Browsers often display threaded lists of messages. The contents of the subject tag can be used in such lists, instead of the more ad hoc approach of using the first few words of the message. This is very similar to the way email browsers display lists of incoming emails by subject rather than by contents.

When replying to a message with a subject, clients SHOULD replicate the subject tag. Clients MAY adorn the subject to denote that it is a reply. e.g. by prepending “Re:”.

Subjects should generally be shorter than 80 chars. Long subjects will likely be trimmed by clients.


Nostr Marketplace (for resilient marketplaces)

draft optional author:fiatjaf author:benarc author:motorina0 author:talvasconcelos

Based on

Implemented in NostrMarket and Plebeian Market


  • merchant - seller of products with NOSTR key-pair
  • customer - buyer of products with NOSTR key-pair
  • product - item for sale by the merchant
  • stall - list of products controlled by merchant (a merchant can have multiple stalls)
  • marketplace - clientside software for searching stalls and purchasing products

Nostr Marketplace Clients

Merchant admin

Where the merchant creates, updates and deletes stalls and products, as well as where they manage sales, payments and communication with customers.

The merchant admin software can be purely clientside, but for convenience and uptime, implementations will likely have a server client listening for NOSTR events.


Marketplace software should be entirely clientside, either as a stand-alone app, or as a purely frontend webpage. A customer subscribes to different merchant NOSTR public keys, and those merchants stalls and products become listed and searchable. The marketplace client is like any other ecommerce site, with basket and checkout. Marketplaces may also wish to include a customer support area for direct message communication with merchants.

Merchant publishing/updating products (event)

A merchant can publish these events:

0set_metaThe merchant description (similar with any nostr public key).
30017set_stallCreate or update a stall.
30018set_productCreate or update a product.
4direct_messageCommunicate with the customer. The messages can be plain-text or JSON.
5deleteDelete a product or a stall.

Event 30017: Create or update a stall.

Event Content:

    "id": <String, UUID generated by the merchant. Sequential IDs (`0`, `1`, `2`...) are discouraged>,
    "name": <String, stall name>,
    "description": <String (optional), stall description>,
    "currency": <String, currency used>,
    "shipping": [
            "id": <String, UUID of the shipping zone, generated by the merchant>,
            "name": <String (optional), zone name>,
            "cost": <float, base cost for shipping. The currency is defined at the stall level>,
            "regions": [<String, regions included in this zone>],

Fields that are not self-explanatory:

  • shipping:
    • an array with possible shipping zones for this stall.
    • the customer MUST choose exactly one of those shipping zones.
    • shipping to different zones can have different costs. For some goods (digital for example) the cost can be zero.
    • the id is an internal value used by the merchant. This value must be sent back as the customer selection.
    • each shipping zone contains the base cost for orders made to that shipping zone, but a specific shipping cost per product can also be specified if the shipping cost for that product is higher than what’s specified by the base cost.

Event Tags:

  "tags": [["d", <String, id of stall]]
  • the d tag is required, its value MUST be the same as the stall id.

Event 30018: Create or update a product

Event Content:

    "id": <String, UUID generated by the merchant.Sequential IDs (`0`, `1`, `2`...) are discouraged>,
    "stall_id": <String, UUID of the stall to which this product belong to>,
    "name": <String, product name>,
    "description": <String (optional), product description>,
    "images": <[String], array of image URLs, optional>,
    "currency": <String, currency used>,
    "price": <float, cost of product>,
    "quantity": <int, available items>,
    "specs": [
        [<String, spec key>, <String, spec value>]
    "shipping": [
            "id": <String, UUID of the shipping zone. Must match one of the zones defined for the stall>,
            "cost": <float, extra cost for shipping. The currency is defined at the stall level>,

Fields that are not self-explanatory:

  • specs:

    • an optional array of key pair values. It allows for the Customer UI to present product specifications in a structure mode. It also allows comparison between products
    • eg: [["operating_system", "Android 12.0"], ["screen_size", "6.4 inches"], ["connector_type", "USB Type C"]]

    Open: better to move spec in the tags section of the event?

  • shipping:

    • an optional array of extra costs to be used per shipping zone, only for products that require special shipping costs to be added to the base shipping cost defined in the stall
    • the id should match the id of the shipping zone, as defined in the shipping field of the stall
    • to calculate the total cost of shipping for an order, the user will choose a shipping option during checkout, and then the client must consider this costs:
      • the base cost from the stall for the chosen shipping option
      • the result of multiplying the product units by the shipping costs specified in the product, if any.

Event Tags:

  "tags": [
       ["d", <String, id of product],
       ["t", <String (optional), product category],
       ["t", <String (optional), product category],
  • the d tag is required, its value MUST be the same as the product id.
  • the t tag is as searchable tag, it represents different categories that the product can be part of (food, fruits). Multiple t tags can be present.

Checkout events

All checkout events are sent as JSON strings using (NIP04 ).

The merchant and the customer can exchange JSON messages that represent different actions. Each JSON message MUST have a type field indicating the what the JSON represents. Possible types:

Message TypeSent ByDescription
0CustomerNew Order
1MerchantPayment Request
2MerchantOrder Status Update

Step 1: customer order (event)

The below json goes in content of NIP04 .

    "id": <String, UUID generated by the customer>,
    "type": 0,
    "name": <String (optional), ???>,
    "address": <String (optional), for physical goods an address should be provided>
    "message": "<String (optional), message for merchant>,
    "contact": {
        "nostr": <32-bytes hex of a pubkey>,
        "phone": <String (optional), if the customer wants to be contacted by phone>,
        "email": <String (optional), if the customer wants to be contacted by email>,
    "items": [
            "product_id": <String, UUID of the product>,
            "quantity": <int, how many products the customer is ordering>
    "shipping_id": <String, UUID of the shipping zone>

Open: is contact.nostr required?

Step 2: merchant request payment (event)

Sent back from the merchant for payment. Any payment option is valid that the merchant can check.

The below json goes in content of NIP04 .

payment_options/type include:

  • url URL to a payment page, stripe, paypal, btcpayserver, etc
  • btc onchain bitcoin address
  • ln bitcoin lightning invoice
  • lnurl bitcoin lnurl-pay
    "id": <String, UUID of the order>,
    "type": 1,
    "message": <String, message to customer, optional>,
    "payment_options": [
            "type": <String, option type>,
            "link": <String, url, btc address, ln invoice, etc>
            "type": <String, option type>,
            "link": <String, url, btc address, ln invoice, etc>
            "type": <String, option type>,
            "link": <String, url, btc address, ln invoice, etc>

Step 3: merchant verify payment/shipped (event)

Once payment has been received and processed.

The below json goes in content of NIP04 .

    "id": <String, UUID of the order>,
    "type": 2,
    "message": <String, message to customer>,
    "paid": <Bool, true/false has received payment>,
    "shipped": <Bool, true/false has been shipped>,

Customize Marketplace

Create a customized user experience using the naddr from NIP-19 . The use of naddr enables easy sharing of marketplace events while incorporating a rich set of metadata. This metadata can include relays, merchant profiles, and more. Subsequently, it allows merchants to be grouped into a market, empowering the market creator to configure the marketplace’s user interface and user experience, and share that marketplace. This customization can encompass elements such as market name, description, logo, banner, themes, and even color schemes, offering a tailored and unique marketplace experience.

Event 30019: Create or update marketplace UI/UX

Event Content:

    "name": <String (optional), market name>,
    "about": <String (optional), market description>,
    "ui": {
      "picture": <String (optional), market logo image URL>,
      "banner": <String (optional), market logo banner URL>,
      "theme": <String (optional), market theme>,
      "darkMode": <Bool, true/false>
    "merchants": <[String] (optional), array of pubkeys>,

This event leverages naddr to enable comprehensive customization and sharing of marketplace configurations, fostering a unique and engaging marketplace environment.

Customer support events

Customer support is handled over whatever communication method was specified. If communicating via nostr, NIP-04 is used .


Standard data models can be found here


Event Treatment

final mandatory author:Semisol

Moved to NIP-01 .



draft optional author:jb55 author:fiatjaf author:arthurfranca

A repost is a kind 6 event that is used to signal to followers that a kind 1 text note is worth reading.

The content of a repost event is the stringified JSON of the reposted note. It MAY also be empty, but that is not recommended.

The repost event MUST include an e tag with the id of the note that is being reposted. That tag MUST include a relay URL as its third entry to indicate where it can be fetched.

The repost SHOULD include a p tag with the pubkey of the event being reposted.

Quote Reposts

Quote reposts are kind 1 events with an embedded e tag (see NIP-08 and NIP-27 ). Because a quote repost includes an e tag, it may show up along replies to the reposted note.

Generic Reposts

Since kind 6 reposts are reserved for kind 1 contents, we use kind 16 as a “generic repost”, that can include any kind of event inside other than kind 1.

kind 16 reposts SHOULD contain a k tag with the stringified kind number of the reposted event as its value.


bech32-encoded entities

draft optional author:jb55 author:fiatjaf author:Semisol

This NIP standardizes bech32-formatted strings that can be used to display keys, ids and other information in clients. These formats are not meant to be used anywhere in the core protocol, they are only meant for displaying to users, copy-pasting, sharing, rendering QR codes and inputting data.

It is recommended that ids and keys are stored in either hex or binary format, since these formats are closer to what must actually be used the core protocol.

Bare keys and ids

To prevent confusion and mixing between private keys, public keys and event ids, which are all 32 byte strings. bech32-(not-m) encoding with different prefixes can be used for each of these entities.

These are the possible bech32 prefixes:

  • npub: public keys
  • nsec: private keys
  • note: note ids

Example: the hex public key 3bf0c63fcb93463407af97a5e5ee64fa883d107ef9e558472c4eb9aaaefa459d translates to npub180cvv07tjdrrgpa0j7j7tmnyl2yr6yr7l8j4s3evf6u64th6gkwsyjh6w6.

The bech32 encodings of keys and ids are not meant to be used inside the standard NIP-01 event formats or inside the filters, they’re meant for human-friendlier display and input only. Clients should still accept keys in both hex and npub format for now, and convert internally.

Shareable identifiers with extra metadata

When sharing a profile or an event, an app may decide to include relay information and other metadata such that other apps can locate and display these entities more easily.

For these events, the contents are a binary-encoded list of TLV (type-length-value), with T and L being 1 byte each (uint8, i.e. a number in the range of 0-255), and V being a sequence of bytes of the size indicated by L.

These are the possible bech32 prefixes with TLV:

  • nprofile: a nostr profile
  • nevent: a nostr event
  • nrelay: a nostr relay
  • naddr: a nostr replaceable event coordinate

These possible standardized TLV types are indicated here:

  • 0: special
    • depends on the bech32 prefix:
      • for nprofile it will be the 32 bytes of the profile public key
      • for nevent it will be the 32 bytes of the event id
      • for nrelay, this is the relay URL
      • for naddr, it is the identifier (the "d" tag) of the event being referenced. For non-parameterized replaceable events, use an empty string.
  • 1: relay
    • for nprofile, nevent and naddr, optionally, a relay in which the entity (profile or event) is more likely to be found, encoded as ascii
    • this may be included multiple times
  • 2: author
    • for naddr, the 32 bytes of the pubkey of the event
    • for nevent, optionally, the 32 bytes of the pubkey of the event
  • 3: kind
    • for naddr, the 32-bit unsigned integer of the kind, big-endian
    • for nevent, optionally, the 32-bit unsigned integer of the kind, big-endian


  • npub10elfcs4fr0l0r8af98jlmgdh9c8tcxjvz9qkw038js35mp4dma8qzvjptg should decode into the public key hex 7e7e9c42a91bfef19fa929e5fda1b72e0ebc1a4c1141673e2794234d86addf4e and vice-versa
  • nsec1vl029mgpspedva04g90vltkh6fvh240zqtv9k0t9af8935ke9laqsnlfe5 should decode into the private key hex 67dea2ed018072d675f5415ecfaed7d2597555e202d85b3d65ea4e58d2d92ffa and vice-versa
  • nprofile1qqsrhuxx8l9ex335q7he0f09aej04zpazpl0ne2cgukyawd24mayt8gpp4mhxue69uhhytnc9e3k7mgpz4mhxue69uhkg6nzv9ejuumpv34kytnrdaksjlyr9p should decode into a profile with the following TLV items:
    • pubkey: 3bf0c63fcb93463407af97a5e5ee64fa883d107ef9e558472c4eb9aaaefa459d
    • relay: wss://
    • relay: wss://


  • npub keys MUST NOT be used in NIP-01 events or in NIP-05 JSON responses, only the hex format is supported there.
  • When decoding a bech32-formatted string, TLVs that are not recognized or supported should be ignored, rather than causing an error.


Command Results

final mandatory author:jb55

Moved to NIP-01 .


nostr: URI scheme

draft optional author:fiatjaf

This NIP standardizes the usage of a common URI scheme for maximum interoperability and openness in the network.

The scheme is nostr:.

The identifiers that come after are expected to be the same as those defined in NIP-19 (except nsec).


  • nostr:npub1sn0wdenkukak0d9dfczzeacvhkrgz92ak56egt7vdgzn8pv2wfqqhrjdv9
  • nostr:nprofile1qqsrhuxx8l9ex335q7he0f09aej04zpazpl0ne2cgukyawd24mayt8gpp4mhxue69uhhytnc9e3k7mgpz4mhxue69uhkg6nzv9ejuumpv34kytnrdaksjlyr9p
  • nostr:note1fntxtkcy9pjwucqwa9mddn7v03wwwsu9j330jj350nvhpky2tuaspk6nqc
  • nostr:nevent1qqstna2yrezu5wghjvswqqculvvwxsrcvu7uc0f78gan4xqhvz49d9spr3mhxue69uhkummnw3ez6un9d3shjtn4de6x2argwghx6egpr4mhxue69uhkummnw3ez6ur4vgh8wetvd3hhyer9wghxuet5nxnepm


Event created_at Limits

draft optional author:jeffthibault author:Giszmo

Relays may define both upper and lower limits within which they will consider an event’s created_at to be acceptable. Both the upper and lower limits MUST be unix timestamps in seconds as defined in NIP-01 .

If a relay supports this NIP, the relay SHOULD send the client an OK result saying the event was not stored for the created_at timestamp not being within the permitted limits.

Client Behavior

Clients SHOULD use the NIP-11 supported_nips field to learn if a relay uses event created_at time limits as defined by this NIP.


This NIP formalizes restrictions on event timestamps as accepted by a relay and allows clients to be aware of relays that have these restrictions.

The event created_at field is just a unix timestamp and can be set to a time in the past or future. Relays accept and share events dated to 20 years ago or 50,000 years in the future. This NIP aims to define a way for relays that do not want to store events with any timestamp to set their own restrictions.

Replaceable events can behave rather unexpectedly if the user wrote them - or tried to write them - with a wrong system clock. Persisting an update with a backdated system now would result in the update not getting persisted without a notification and if they did the last update with a forward dated system, they will again fail to do another update with the now correct time.

A wide adoption of this NIP could create a better user experience as it would decrease the amount of events that appear wildly out of order or even from impossible dates in the distant past or future.

Keep in mind that there is a use case where a user migrates their old posts onto a new relay. If a relay rejects events that were not recently created, it cannot serve this use case.

Python (pseudocode) Example

import time

TIME = int(time.time())
LOWER_LIMIT = TIME - (60 * 60 * 24) # Define lower limit as 1 day into the past
UPPER_LIMIT = TIME + (60 * 15)      # Define upper limit as 15 minutes into the future

if event.created_at not in range(LOWER_LIMIT, UPPER_LIMIT):
  ws.send('["OK",, False, "invalid: the event created_at field is out of the acceptable range (-24h, +15min) for this relay"]')

Note: These are just example limits, the relay operator can choose whatever limits they want.


Long-form Content

draft optional author:fiatjaf

This NIP defines kind:30023 (a parameterized replaceable event) for long-form text content, generally referred to as “articles” or “blog posts”. kind:30024 has the same structure as kind:30023 and is used to save long form drafts.

“Social” clients that deal primarily with kind:1 notes should not be expected to implement this NIP.


The .content of these events should be a string text in Markdown syntax. To maximize compatibility and readability between different clients and devices, any client that is creating long form notes:

  • MUST NOT hard line-break paragraphs of text, such as arbitrary line breaks at 80 column boundaries.

  • MUST NOT support adding HTML to Markdown.


For the date of the last update the .created_at field should be used, for “tags”/“hashtags” (i.e. topics about which the event might be of relevance) the t tag should be used, as per NIP-12.

Other metadata fields can be added as tags to the event as necessary. Here we standardize 4 that may be useful, although they remain strictly optional:

  • "title", for the article title
  • "image", for a URL pointing to an image to be shown along with the title
  • "summary", for the article summary
  • "published_at", for the timestamp in unix seconds (stringified) of the first time the article was published


These articles are meant to be editable, so they should make use of the parameterized replaceability feature and include a d tag with an identifier for the article. Clients should take care to only publish and read these events from relays that implement that. If they don’t do that they should also take care to hide old versions of the same article they may receive.


The article may be linked to using the NIP-19 naddr code along with the a tag.


References to other Nostr notes, articles or profiles must be made according to NIP-27 , i.e. by using NIP-21 nostr:... links and optionally adding tags for these (see example below).

Example Event

  "kind": 30023,
  "created_at": 1675642635,
  "content": "Lorem [ipsum][nostr:nevent1qqst8cujky046negxgwwm5ynqwn53t8aqjr6afd8g59nfqwxpdhylpcpzamhxue69uhhyetvv9ujuetcv9khqmr99e3k7mg8arnc9] dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.\n\nRead more at nostr:naddr1qqzkjurnw4ksz9thwden5te0wfjkccte9ehx7um5wghx7un8qgs2d90kkcq3nk2jry62dyf50k0h36rhpdtd594my40w9pkal876jxgrqsqqqa28pccpzu.",
  "tags": [
    ["d", "lorem-ipsum"],
    ["title", "Lorem Ipsum"],
    ["published_at", "1296962229"],
    ["t", "placeholder"],
    ["e", "b3e392b11f5d4f28321cedd09303a748acfd0487aea5a7450b3481c60b6e4f87", "wss://"],
    ["a", "30023:a695f6b60119d9521934a691347d9f78e8770b56da16bb255ee286ddf9fda919:ipsum", "wss://"]
  "pubkey": "...",
  "id": "..."


Extra metadata fields and tags

draft optional author:fiatjaf

This NIP defines extra optional fields added to events.

kind 0

These are extra fields not specified in NIP-01 that may be present in the stringified JSON of metadata events:

  • display_name: a bigger name with richer characters than name. Implementations should fallback to name when this is not available.
  • website: a web URL related in any way to the event author.
  • banner: an URL to a wide (~1024x768) picture to be optionally displayed in the background of a profile screen.

Deprecated fields

These are fields that should be ignored or removed when found in the wild:

  • displayName: use display_name instead.
  • username: use name instead.


These tags may be present in multiple event kinds. Whenever a different meaning is not specified by some more specific NIP, they have the following meanings:

  • r: a web URL the event is referring to in some way



draft optional author:jb55

A reaction is a kind 7 note that is used to react to other notes.

The generic reaction, represented by the content set to a + string, SHOULD be interpreted as a “like” or “upvote”.

A reaction with content set to - SHOULD be interpreted as a “dislike” or “downvote”. It SHOULD NOT be counted as a “like”, and MAY be displayed as a downvote or dislike on a post. A client MAY also choose to tally likes against dislikes in a reddit-like system of upvotes and downvotes, or display them as separate tallies.

The content MAY be an emoji, or NIP-30 custom emoji in this case it MAY be interpreted as a “like” or “dislike”, or the client MAY display this emoji reaction on the post. If the content is an empty string then the client should consider it a “+”.


The reaction event SHOULD include e and p tags from the note the user is reacting to. This allows users to be notified of reactions to posts they were mentioned in. Including the e tags enables clients to pull all the reactions associated with individual posts or all the posts in a thread.

The last e tag MUST be the id of the note that is being reacted to.

The last p tag MUST be the pubkey of the event being reacted to.

Example code

func make_like_event(pubkey: String, privkey: String, liked: NostrEvent) -> NostrEvent {
    var tags: [[String]] = liked.tags.filter { 
    	tag in tag.count >= 2 && (tag[0] == "e" || tag[0] == "p") 
    tags.append(["p", liked.pubkey])
    let ev = NostrEvent(content: "+", pubkey: pubkey, kind: 7, tags: tags)
    ev.sign(privkey: privkey)
    return ev

Custom Emoji Reaction

The client may specify a custom emoji (NIP-30 ) :shortcode: in the reaction content. The client should refer to the emoji tag and render the content as an emoji if shortcode is specified.

  "kind": 7,
  "content": ":soapbox:",
  "tags": [
    ["emoji", "soapbox", ""]
  "pubkey": "79c2cae114ea28a981e7559b4fe7854a473521a8d22a66bbab9fa248eb820ff6",
  "created_at": 1682790000

The content can be set only one :shortcode:. And emoji tag should be one.


Delegated Event Signing

draft optional author:markharding author:minds

This NIP defines how events can be delegated so that they can be signed by other keypairs.

Another application of this proposal is to abstract away the use of the ‘root’ keypairs when interacting with clients. For example, a user could generate new keypairs for each client they wish to use and authorize those keypairs to generate events on behalf of their root pubkey, where the root keypair is stored in cold storage.

Introducing the ‘delegation’ tag

This NIP introduces a new tag: delegation which is formatted as follows:

  <pubkey of the delegator>,
  <conditions query string>,
  <delegation token: 64-byte Schnorr signature of the sha256 hash of the delegation string>
Delegation Token

The delegation token should be a 64-byte Schnorr signature of the sha256 hash of the following string:

nostr:delegation:<pubkey of publisher (delegatee)>:<conditions query string>
Conditions Query String

The following fields and operators are supported in the above query string:


  1. kind
    • Operators:
      • =${KIND_NUMBER} - delegatee may only sign events of this kind
  2. created_at
    • Operators:
      • <${TIMESTAMP} - delegatee may only sign events created before the specified timestamp
      • >${TIMESTAMP} - delegatee may only sign events created after the specified timestamp

In order to create a single condition, you must use a supported field and operator. Multiple conditions can be used in a single query string, including on the same field. Conditions must be combined with &.

For example, the following condition strings are valid:

  • kind=1&created_at<1675721813
  • kind=0&kind=1&created_at>1675721813
  • kind=1&created_at>1674777689&created_at<1675721813

For the vast majority of use-cases, it is advisable that:

  1. Query strings should include a created_at after condition reflecting the current time, to prevent the delegatee from publishing historic notes on the delegator’s behalf.
  2. Query strings should include a created_at before condition that is not empty and is not some extremely distant time in the future. If delegations are not limited in time scope, they expose similar security risks to simply using the root key for authentication.
## Delegator:
privkey: ee35e8bb71131c02c1d7e73231daa48e9953d329a4b701f7133c8f46dd21139c
pubkey:  8e0d3d3eb2881ec137a11debe736a9086715a8c8beeeda615780064d68bc25dd

## Delegatee:
privkey: 777e4f60b4aa87937e13acc84f7abcc3c93cc035cb4c1e9f7a9086dd78fffce1
pubkey:  477318cfb5427b9cfc66a9fa376150c1ddbc62115ae27cef72417eb959691396

Delegation string to grant note publishing authorization to the delegatee (477318cf) from now, for the next 30 days, given the current timestamp is 1674834236.


The delegator (8e0d3d3e) then signs a SHA256 hash of the above delegation string, the result of which is the delegation token:


The delegatee (477318cf) can now construct an event on behalf of the delegator (8e0d3d3e). The delegatee then signs the event with its own private key and publishes.

  "id": "e93c6095c3db1c31d15ac771f8fc5fb672f6e52cd25505099f62cd055523224f",
  "pubkey": "477318cfb5427b9cfc66a9fa376150c1ddbc62115ae27cef72417eb959691396",
  "created_at": 1677426298,
  "kind": 1,
  "tags": [
  "content": "Hello, world!",
  "sig": "633db60e2e7082c13a47a6b19d663d45b2a2ebdeaf0b4c35ef83be2738030c54fc7fd56d139652937cdca875ee61b51904a1d0d0588a6acd6168d7be2909d693"

The event should be considered a valid delegation if the conditions are satisfied (kind=1, created_at>1674834236 and created_at<1677426236 in this example) and, upon validation of the delegation token, are found to be unchanged from the conditions in the original delegation string.

Clients should display the delegated note as if it was published directly by the delegator (8e0d3d3e).

Relay & Client Support

Relays should answer requests such as ["REQ", "", {"authors": ["A"]}] by querying both the pubkey and delegation tags [1] value.

Relays SHOULD allow the delegator (8e0d3d3e) to delete the events published by the delegatee (477318cf).


Text Note References

draft optional author:arthurfranca author:hodlbod author:fiatjaf

This document standardizes the treatment given by clients of inline references of other events and profiles inside the .content of any event that has readable text in its .content (such as kinds 1 and 30023).

When creating an event, clients should include mentions to other profiles and to other events in the middle of the .content using NIP-21 codes, such as nostr:nprofile1qqsw3dy8cpu...6x2argwghx6egsqstvg.

Including NIP-10 -style tags (["e", <hex-id>, <relay-url>, <marker>]) for each reference is optional, clients should do it whenever they want the profile being mentioned to be notified of the mention, or when they want the referenced event to recognize their mention as a reply.

A reader client that receives an event with such nostr:... mentions in its .content can do any desired context augmentation (for example, linking to the profile or showing a preview of the mentioned event contents) it wants in the process. If turning such mentions into links, they could become internal links, NIP-21 links or direct links to web clients that will handle these references.

Example of a profile mention process

Suppose Bob is writing a note in a client that has search-and-autocomplete functionality for users that is triggered when they write the character @.

As Bob types "hello @mat" the client will prompt him to autocomplete with mattn’s profile , showing a picture and name.

Bob presses “enter” and now he sees his typed note as "hello @mattn", @mattn is highlighted, indicating that it is a mention. Internally, however, the event looks like this:

  "content": "hello nostr:nprofile1qqszclxx9f5haga8sfjjrulaxncvkfekj097t6f3pu65f86rvg49ehqj6f9dh",
  "created_at": 1679790774,
  "id": "f39e9b451a73d62abc5016cffdd294b1a904e2f34536a208874fe5e22bbd47cf",
  "kind": 1,
  "pubkey": "79be667ef9dcbbac55a06295ce870b07029bfcdb2dce28d959f2815b16f81798",
  "sig": "f8c8bab1b90cc3d2ae1ad999e6af8af449ad8bb4edf64807386493163e29162b5852a796a8f474d6b1001cddbaac0de4392838574f5366f03cc94cf5dfb43f4d",
  "tags": [

(Alternatively, the mention could have been a nostr:npub1... URL.)

After Bob publishes this event and Carol sees it, her client will initially display the .content as it is, but later it will parse the .content and see that there is a nostr: URL in there, decode it, extract the public key from it (and possibly relay hints), fetch that profile from its internal database or relays, then replace the full URL with the name @mattn, with a link to the internal page view for that profile.

Verbose and probably unnecessary considerations

  • The example above was very concrete, but it doesn’t mean all clients have to implement the same flow. There could be clients that do not support autocomplete at all, so they just allow users to paste raw NIP-19 codes into the body of text, then prefix these with nostr: before publishing the event.
  • The flow for referencing other events is similar: a user could paste a note1... or nevent1... code and the client will turn that into a nostr:note1... or nostr:nevent1... URL. Then upon reading such references the client may show the referenced note in a preview box or something like that – or nothing at all.
  • Other display procedures can be employed: for example, if a client that is designed for dealing with only kind:1 text notes sees, for example, a kind:30023 nostr:naddr1... URL reference in the .content, it can, for example, decide to turn that into a link to some hardcoded webapp capable of displaying such events.
  • Clients may give the user the option to include or not include tags for mentioned events or profiles. If someone wants to mention mattn without notifying them, but still have a nice augmentable/clickable link to their profile inside their note, they can instruct their client to not create a ["p", ...] tag for that specific mention.
  • In the same way, if someone wants to reference another note but their reference is not meant to show up along other replies to that same note, their client can choose to not include a corresponding ["e", ...] tag for any given nostr:nevent1... URL inside .content. Clients may decide to expose these advanced functionalities to users or be more opinionated about things.


Public Chat

draft optional author:ChristopherDavid author:fiatjaf author:jb55 author:Cameri

This NIP defines new event kinds for public chat channels, channel messages, and basic client-side moderation.

It reserves five event kinds (40-44) for immediate use:

  • 40 - channel create
  • 41 - channel metadata
  • 42 - channel message
  • 43 - hide message
  • 44 - mute user

Client-centric moderation gives client developers discretion over what types of content they want included in their apps, while imposing no additional requirements on relays.

Kind 40: Create channel

Create a public chat channel.

In the channel creation content field, Client SHOULD include basic channel metadata (name, about, picture as specified in kind 41).

    "content": "{\"name\": \"Demo Channel\", \"about\": \"A test channel.\", \"picture\": \"\"}",

Kind 41: Set channel metadata

Update a channel’s public metadata.

Clients and relays SHOULD handle kind 41 events similar to kind 33 replaceable events, where the information is used to update the metadata, without modifying the event id for the channel. Only the most recent kind 41 is needed to be stored.

Clients SHOULD ignore kind 41s from pubkeys other than the kind 40 pubkey.

Clients SHOULD support basic metadata fields:

  • name - string - Channel name
  • about - string - Channel description
  • picture - string - URL of channel picture

Clients MAY add additional metadata fields.

Clients SHOULD use NIP-10 marked “e” tags to recommend a relay.

    "content": "{\"name\": \"Updated Demo Channel\", \"about\": \"Updating a test channel.\", \"picture\": \"\"}",
    "tags": [["e", <channel_create_event_id>, <relay-url>]],

Kind 42: Create channel message

Send a text message to a channel.

Clients SHOULD use NIP-10 marked “e” tags to recommend a relay and specify whether it is a reply or root message.

Clients SHOULD append NIP-10 “p” tags to replies.

Root message:

    "content": <string>,
    "tags": [["e", <kind_40_event_id>, <relay-url>, "root"]],

Reply to another message:

    "content": <string>,
    "tags": [
        ["e", <kind_40_event_id>, <relay-url>, "root"],
        ["e", <kind_42_event_id>, <relay-url>, "reply"],
        ["p", <pubkey>, <relay-url>],

Kind 43: Hide message

User no longer wants to see a certain message.

The content may optionally include metadata such as a reason.

Clients SHOULD hide event 42s shown to a given user, if there is an event 43 from that user matching the event 42 id.

Clients MAY hide event 42s for other users other than the user who sent the event 43.

(For example, if three users ‘hide’ an event giving a reason that includes the word ‘pornography’, a Nostr client that is an iOS app may choose to hide that message for all iOS clients.)

    "content": "{\"reason\": \"Dick pic\"}",
    "tags": [["e", <kind_42_event_id>]],

Kind 44: Mute user

User no longer wants to see messages from another user.

The content may optionally include metadata such as a reason.

Clients SHOULD hide event 42s shown to a given user, if there is an event 44 from that user matching the event 42 pubkey.

Clients MAY hide event 42s for users other than the user who sent the event 44.

    "content": "{\"reason\": \"Posting dick pics\"}",
    "tags": [["p", <pubkey>]],

NIP-10 relay recommendations

For NIP-10 relay recommendations, clients generally SHOULD use the relay URL of the original (oldest) kind 40 event.

Clients MAY recommend any relay URL. For example, if a relay hosting the original kind 40 event for a channel goes offline, clients could instead fetch channel data from a backup relay, or a relay that clients trust more than the original relay.


If we’re solving censorship-resistant communication for social media, we may as well solve it also for Telegram-style messaging.

We can bring the global conversation out from walled gardens into a true public square open to all.

Additional info


Custom Emoji

draft optional author:alexgleason

Custom emoji may be added to kind 0 and kind 1 events by including one or more "emoji" tags, in the form:

["emoji", <shortcode>, <image-url>]


  • <shortcode> is a name given for the emoji, which MUST be comprised of only alphanumeric characters and underscores.
  • <image-url> is a URL to the corresponding image file of the emoji.

For each emoji tag, clients should parse emoji shortcodes (aka “emojify”) like :shortcode: in the event to display custom emoji.

Clients may allow users to add custom emoji to an event by including :shortcode: identifier in the event, and adding the relevant "emoji" tags.

Kind 0 events

In kind 0 events, the name and about fields should be emojified.

  "kind": 0,
  "content": "{\"name\":\"Alex Gleason :soapbox:\"}",
  "tags": [
    ["emoji", "soapbox", ""]
  "pubkey": "79c2cae114ea28a981e7559b4fe7854a473521a8d22a66bbab9fa248eb820ff6",
  "created_at": 1682790000

Kind 1 events

In kind 1 events, the content should be emojified.

  "kind": 1,
  "content": "Hello :gleasonator: 😂 :ablobcatrainbow: :disputed: yolo",
    "tags": [
    ["emoji", "ablobcatrainbow", ""],
    ["emoji", "disputed", ""],
    ["emoji", "gleasonator", ""]
  "pubkey": "79c2cae114ea28a981e7559b4fe7854a473521a8d22a66bbab9fa248eb820ff6",
  "created_at": 1682630000


Dealing with unknown event kinds

draft optional author:pablof7z author:fiatjaf

When creating a new custom event kind that is part of a custom protocol and isn’t meant to be read as text (like kind:1), clients should use an alt tag to write a short human-readable plaintext summary of what that event is about.

The intent is that social clients, used to display only kind:1 notes, can still show something in case a custom event pops up in their timelines. The content of the alt tag should provide enough context for a user that doesn’t know anything about this event kind to understand what it is.

These clients that only know kind:1 are not expected to ask relays for events of different kinds, but users could still reference these weird events on their notes, and without proper context these could be nonsensical notes. Having the fallback text makes that situation much better – even if only for making the user aware that they should try to view that custom event elsewhere.

kind:1-centric clients can make interacting with these event kinds more functional by supporting NIP-89 .



draft optional author:staab author:gruruya author:s3x-jay

A label is a kind 1985 event that is used to label other entities. This supports a number of use cases, from distributed moderation and content recommendations to reviews and ratings.

Label Target

The label event MUST include one or more tags representing the object or objects being labeled: e, p, a, r, or t tags. This allows for labeling of events, people, relays, or topics respectively. As with NIP-01, a relay hint SHOULD be included when using e and p tags.

Label Tag

This NIP introduces a new tag l which denotes a label, and a new L tag which denotes a label namespace. A label MUST include a mark matching an L tag. L tags refer to a tag type within nostr, or a nomenclature external to nostr defined either formally or by convention. Any string can be a namespace, but publishers SHOULD ensure they are unambiguous by using a well-defined namespace (such as an ISO standard) or reverse domain name notation.

Namespaces starting with # indicate that the label target should be associated with the label’s value. This is a way of attaching standard nostr tags to events, pubkeys, relays, urls, etc.

Some examples:

  • ["l", "footstr", "#t"] - the publisher thinks the given entity should have the footstr topic applied.
  • ["l", "<pubkey>", "#p"] - the publisher thinks the given entity is related to <pubkey>
  • ["l", "IT-MI", "ISO-3166-2"] - Milano, Italy using ISO 3166-2.
  • ["l", "VI-hum", "com.example.ontology"] - Violence toward a human being as defined by

L tags containing the label namespaces MUST be included in order to support searching by namespace rather than by a specific tag. The special ugc (“user generated content”) namespace MAY be used when the label content is provided by an end user.

l and L tags MAY be added to other event kinds to support self-reporting. For events with a kind other than 1985, labels refer to the event itself.

Label Annotations

A label tag MAY include a 4th positional element detailing extra metadata about the label in question. This string should be a json-encoded object. Any key MAY be used, but the following are recommended:

  • quality may have a value of 0 to 1. This allows for an absolute, granular scale that can be represented in any way (5 stars, color scale, etc).
  • confidence may have a value of 0 to 1. This indicates the certainty which the author has about their rating.
  • context may be an array of urls (including NIP-21 urls) indicating other context that should be considered when interpreting labels.


Labels should be short, meaningful strings. Longer discussions, such as for a review, or an explanation of why something was labeled the way it was, should go in the event’s content field.

Example events

A suggestion that multiple pubkeys be associated with the permies topic.

  "kind": 1985,
  "tags": [
    ["L", "#t"],
    ["l", "permies", "#t"],
    ["p", <pubkey1>, <relay_url>],
    ["p", <pubkey2>, <relay_url>]
  "content": "",

A review of a relay.

  "kind": 1985,
  "tags": [
    ["L", "com.example.ontology"],
    ["l", "relay/review", "com.example.ontology", "{\"quality\": 0.1}"],
    ["r", <relay_url>]
  "content": "This relay is full of mean people.",

Publishers can self-label by adding l tags to their own non-1985 events.

  "kind": 1,
  "tags": [
    ["L", "com.example.ontology"],
    ["l", "IL-frd", "com.example.ontology"]
  "content": "Send me 100 sats and I'll send you 200 back",

Other Notes

When using this NIP to bulk-label many targets at once, events may be deleted and a replacement may be published. We have opted not to use parameterizable/replaceable events for this due to the complexity in coming up with a standard d tag. In order to avoid ambiguity when querying, publishers SHOULD limit labeling events to a single namespace.

Before creating a vocabulary, explore how your use case may have already been designed and imitate that design if possible. Reverse domain name notation is encouraged to avoid namespace clashes, but for the sake of interoperability all namespaces should be considered open for public use, and not proprietary. In other words, if there is a namespace that fits your use case, use it even if it points to someone else’s domain name.

Vocabularies MAY choose to fully qualify all labels within a namespace (for example, ["l", "com.example.vocabulary:my-label"]. This may be preferred when defining more formal vocabularies that should not be confused with another namespace when querying without an L tag. For these vocabularies, all labels SHOULD include the namespace (rather than mixing qualified and unqualified labels).


Parameterized Replaceable Events

final mandatory author:Semisol author:Kukks author:Cameri author:Giszmo

Moved to NIP-01 .


Sensitive Content / Content Warning

draft optional author:fernandolguevara

The content-warning tag enables users to specify if the event’s content needs to be approved by readers to be shown. Clients can hide the content until the user acts on it.

l and L tags MAY be also be used as defined in NIP-32 with the content-warning or other namespace to support further qualification and querying.

tag: content-warning
 - [reason]: optional
    "pubkey": "<pub-key>",
    "created_at": 1000000000,
    "kind": 1,
    "tags": [
      ["t", "hastag"],
      ["L", "content-warning"],
      ["l", "reason", "content-warning"],
      ["L", "social.nos.ontology"],
      ["l", "NS-nud", "social.nos.ontology"],
      ["content-warning", "reason"] /* reason is optional */
    "content": "sensitive content with #hastag\n",
    "id": "<event-id>"


User Statuses

draft optional author:jb55


This NIP enables a way for users to share live statuses such as what music they are listening to, as well as what they are currently doing: work, play, out of office, etc.

Live Statuses

A special event with kind:30315 “User Status” is defined as an optionally expiring parameterized replaceable event, where the d tag represents the status type:

For example:

  "kind": 30315,
  "content": "Sign up for nostrasia!",
  "tags": [
    ["d", "general"],
    ["r", ""]

  "kind": 30315,
  "content": "Intergalatic - Beastie Boys",
  "tags": [
    ["d", "music"],
    ["r", "spotify:search:Intergalatic%20-%20Beastie%20Boys"],
    ["expiration", "1692845589"]

Two common status types are defined: general and music. general represent general statuses: “Working”, “Hiking”, etc.

music status events are for live streaming what you are currently listening to. The expiry of the music status should be when the track will stop playing.

Any other status types can be used but they are not defined by this NIP.

The status MAY include an r, p, e or a tag linking to a URL, profile, note, or parameterized replaceable event.

Client behavior

Clients MAY display this next to the username on posts or profiles to provide live user status information.

Use Cases

  • Calendar nostr apps that update your general status when you’re in a meeting
  • Nostr Nests that update your general status with a link to the nest when you join
  • Nostr music streaming services that update your music status when you’re listening
  • Podcasting apps that update your music status when you’re listening to a podcast, with a link for others to listen as well
  • Clients can use the system media player to update playing music status

The content MAY include emoji(s), or NIP-30 custom emoji(s). If the content is an empty string then the client should clear the status.


External Identities in Profiles

draft optional author:pseudozach author:Semisol


Nostr protocol users may have other online identities such as usernames, profile pages, keypairs etc. they control and they may want to include this data in their profile metadata so clients can parse, validate and display this information.

i tag on a metadata event

A new optional i tag is introduced for kind 0 metadata event contents in addition to name, about, picture fields as included in NIP-01 :

    "id": <id>,
    "pubkey": <pubkey>,
    "tags": [
        ["i", "github:semisol", "9721ce4ee4fceb91c9711ca2a6c9a5ab"],
        ["i", "twitter:semisol_public", "1619358434134196225"],
        ["i", "", "109775066355589974"]
        ["i", "telegram:1087295469", "nostrdirectory/770"]

An i tag will have two parameters, which are defined as the following:

  1. platform:identity: This is the platform name (for example github) and the identity on that platform (for example semisol) joined together with :.
  2. proof: String or object that points to the proof of owning this identity.

Clients SHOULD process any i tags with more than 2 values for future extensibility.
Identity provider names SHOULD only include a-z, 0-9 and the characters ._-/ and MUST NOT include :.
Identity names SHOULD be normalized if possible by replacing uppercase letters with lowercase letters, and if there are multiple aliases for an entity the primary one should be used.

Claim types


Identity: A GitHub username.

Proof: A GitHub Gist ID. This Gist should be created by <identity> with a single file that has the text Verifying that I control the following Nostr public key: <npub encoded public key>.
This can be located at<identity>/<proof>.


Identity: A Twitter username.

Proof: A Tweet ID. The tweet should be posted by <identity> and have the text Verifying my account on nostr My Public Key: "<npub encoded public key>".
This can be located at<identity>/status/<proof>.


Identity: A Mastodon instance and username in the format <instance>/@<username>.

Proof: A Mastodon post ID. This post should be published by <username>@<instance> and have the text Verifying that I control the following Nostr public key: "<npub encoded public key>". This can be located at https://<identity>/<proof>.


Identity: A Telegram user ID.

Proof: A string in the format <ref>/<id> which points to a message published in the public channel or group with name <ref> and message ID <id>. This message should be sent by user ID <identity> and have the text Verifying that I control the following Nostr public key: "<npub encoded public key>".
This can be located at<proof>.


Expiration Timestamp

draft optional author:0xtlt

The expiration tag enables users to specify a unix timestamp at which the message SHOULD be considered expired (by relays and clients) and SHOULD be deleted by relays.

tag: expiration
 - [UNIX timestamp in seconds]: required
    "pubkey": "<pub-key>",
    "created_at": 1000000000,
    "kind": 1,
    "tags": [
      ["expiration", "1600000000"]
    "content": "This message will expire at the specified timestamp and be deleted by relays.\n",
    "id": "<event-id>"

Note: The timestamp should be in the same format as the created_at timestamp and should be interpreted as the time at which the message should be deleted by relays.

Client Behavior

Clients SHOULD use the supported_nips field to learn if a relay supports this NIP. Clients SHOULD NOT send expiration events to relays that do not support this NIP.

Clients SHOULD ignore events that have expired.

Relay Behavior

Relays MAY NOT delete expired messages immediately on expiration and MAY persist them indefinitely.
Relays SHOULD NOT send expired events to clients, even if they are stored.
Relays SHOULD drop any events that are published to them if they are expired.
An expiration timestamp does not affect storage of ephemeral events.

Suggested Use Cases

  • Temporary announcements - This tag can be used to make temporary announcements. For example, an event organizer could use this tag to post announcements about an upcoming event.
  • Limited-time offers - This tag can be used by businesses to make limited-time offers that expire after a certain amount of time. For example, a business could use this tag to make a special offer that is only available for a limited time.

The events could be downloaded by third parties as they are publicly accessible all the time on the relays. So don’t consider expiring messages as a security feature for your conversations or other uses.


Authentication of clients to relays

draft optional author:Semisol author:fiatjaf

This NIP defines a way for clients to authenticate to relays by signing an ephemeral event.


A relay may want to require clients to authenticate to access restricted resources. For example,

  • A relay may request payment or other forms of whitelisting to publish events – this can naïvely be achieved by limiting publication to events signed by the whitelisted key, but with this NIP they may choose to accept any events as long as they are published from an authenticated user;
  • A relay may limit access to kind: 4 DMs to only the parties involved in the chat exchange, and for that it may require authentication before clients can query for that kind.
  • A relay may limit subscriptions of any kind to paying users or users whitelisted through any other means, and require authentication.


This NIP defines a new message, AUTH, which relays can send when they support authentication and clients can send to relays when they want to authenticate. When sent by relays, the message is of the following form:

["AUTH", <challenge-string>]

And, when sent by clients, of the following form:

["AUTH", <signed-event-json>]

The signed event is an ephemeral event not meant to be published or queried, it must be of kind: 22242 and it should have at least two tags, one for the relay URL and one for the challenge string as received from the relay. Relays MUST exclude kind: 22242 events from being broadcasted to any client. created_at should be the current time. Example:

  "id": "...",
  "pubkey": "...",
  "created_at": 1669695536,
  "kind": 22242,
  "tags": [
    ["relay", "wss://"],
    ["challenge", "challengestringhere"]
  "content": "",
  "sig": "..."

Protocol flow

At any moment the relay may send an AUTH message to the client containing a challenge. After receiving that the client may decide to authenticate itself or not. The challenge is expected to be valid for the duration of the connection or until a next challenge is sent by the relay.

The client may send an auth message right before performing an action for which it knows authentication will be required – for example, right before requesting kind: 4 chat messages –, or it may do right on connection start or at some other moment it deems best. The authentication is expected to last for the duration of the WebSocket connection.

Upon receiving a message from an unauthenticated user it can’t fulfill without authentication, a relay may choose to notify the client. For that it can use a NOTICE or OK message with a standard prefix "restricted: " that is readable both by humans and machines, for example:

["NOTICE", "restricted: we can't serve DMs to unauthenticated users, does your client implement NIP-42?"]

or it can return an OK message noting the reason an event was not written using the same prefix:

["OK", <event-id>, false, "restricted: we do not accept events from unauthenticated users, please sign up at"]

Signed Event Verification

To verify AUTH messages, relays must ensure:

  • that the kind is 22242;
  • that the event created_at is close (e.g. within ~10 minutes) of the current time;
  • that the "challenge" tag matches the challenge sent before;
  • that the "relay" tag matches the relay URL:
    • URL normalization techniques can be applied. For most cases just checking if the domain name is correct should be enough.


Event Counts

draft optional author:staab

Relays may support the verb COUNT, which provides a mechanism for obtaining event counts.


Some queries a client may want to execute against connected relays are prohibitively expensive, for example, in order to retrieve follower counts for a given pubkey, a client must query all kind-3 events referring to a given pubkey only to count them. The result may be cached, either by a client or by a separate indexing server as an alternative, but both options erode the decentralization of the network by creating a second-layer protocol on top of Nostr.

Filters and return values

This NIP defines the verb COUNT, which accepts a subscription id and filters as specified in NIP 01 for the verb REQ. Multiple filters are OR’d together and aggregated into a single count result.

["COUNT", <subscription_id>, <filters JSON>...]

Counts are returned using a COUNT response in the form {"count": <integer>}. Relays may use probabilistic counts to reduce compute requirements. In case a relay uses probabilistic counts, it MAY indicate it in the response with approximate key i.e. {"count": <integer>, "approximate": <true|false>}.

["COUNT", <subscription_id>, {"count": <integer>}]


## Followers count
["COUNT", <subscription_id>, {"kinds": [3], "#p": [<pubkey>]}]
["COUNT", <subscription_id>, {"count": 238}]

## Count posts and reactions
["COUNT", <subscription_id>, {"kinds": [1, 7], "authors": [<pubkey>]}]
["COUNT", <subscription_id>, {"count": 5}]

## Count posts approximately
["COUNT", <subscription_id>, {"kinds": [1]}]
["COUNT", <subscription_id>, {"count": 93412452, "approximate": true}]


Nostr Connect

draft optional author:tiero author:giowe author:vforvalerio87


Private keys should be exposed to as few systems - apps, operating systems, devices - as possible as each system adds to the attack surface.

Entering private keys can also be annoying and requires exposing them to even more systems such as the operating system’s clipboard that might be monitored by malicious apps.


  • App: Nostr app on any platform that requires to act on behalf of a nostr account.
  • Signer: Nostr app that holds the private key of a nostr account and can sign on its behalf.


App and Signer sends ephemeral encrypted messages to each other using kind 24133, using a relay of choice.

App prompts the Signer to do things such as fetching the public key or signing events.

The content field must be an encrypted JSONRPC-ish request or response.

Signer Protocol


  "id": <random_string>,
  "method": <one_of_the_methods>,
  "params": [<anything>, <else>]
  "id": <request_id>,
  "result": <anything>,
  "error": <reason>



These are mandatory methods the remote signer app MUST implement:

  • describe
    • params []
    • result ["describe", "get_public_key", "sign_event", "connect", "disconnect", "delegate", ...]
  • get_public_key
    • params []
    • result pubkey
  • sign_event
    • params [event]
    • result event_with_signature
  • connect
    • params [pubkey]
  • disconnect
    • params []
  • delegate
    • params [delegatee, { kind: number, since: number, until: number }]
    • result { from: string, to: string, cond: string, sig: string }
  • get_relays
    • params []
    • result { [url: string]: {read: boolean, write: boolean} }
  • nip04_encrypt
    • params [pubkey, plaintext]
    • result nip4 ciphertext
  • nip04_decrypt
    • params [pubkey, nip4 ciphertext]
    • result [plaintext]

NOTICE: pubkey and signature are hex-encoded strings.

Nostr Connect URI

Signer discovers App by scanning a QR code, clicking on a deep link or copy-pasting an URI.

The App generates a special URI with prefix nostrconnect:// and base path the hex-encoded pubkey with the following querystring parameters URL encoded

  • relay URL of the relay of choice where the App is connected and the Signer must send and listen for messages.
  • metadata metadata JSON of the App
    • name human-readable name of the App
    • url (optional) URL of the website requesting the connection
    • description (optional) description of the App
    • icons (optional) array of URLs for icons of the App.
const uri = `nostrconnect://<pubkey>?relay=${encodeURIComponent("wss://")}&metadata=${encodeURIComponent(JSON.stringify({"name": "Example"}))}`


The content field contains encrypted message as specified by NIP04 . The kind chosen is 24133.


  1. User clicks on “Connect” button on a website or scan it with a QR code
  2. It will show an URI to open a “nostr connect” enabled Signer
  3. In the URI there is a pubkey of the App ie. nostrconnect://<pubkey>&relay=<relay>&metadata=<metadata>
  4. The Signer will send a message to ACK the connect request, along with his public key

Disconnect (from App)

  1. User clicks on “Disconnect” button on the App
  2. The App will send a message to the Signer with a disconnect request
  3. The Signer will send a message to ACK the disconnect request

Disconnect (from Signer)

  1. User clicks on “Disconnect” button on the Signer
  2. The Signer will send a message to the App with a disconnect request

Get Public Key

  1. The App will send a message to the Signer with a get_public_key request
  2. The Signer will send back a message with the public key as a response to the get_public_key request

Sign Event

  1. The App will send a message to the Signer with a sign_event request along with the event to be signed
  2. The Signer will show a popup to the user to inspect the event and sign it
  3. The Signer will send back a message with the event including the id and the schnorr signature as a response to the sign_event request


  1. The App will send a message with metadata to the Signer with a delegate request along with the conditions query string and the pubkey of the App to be delegated.
  2. The Signer will show a popup to the user to delegate the App to sign on his behalf
  3. The Signer will send back a message with the signed NIP-26 delegation token or reject it


Nostr Wallet Connect

draft optional author:kiwiidb author:bumi author:semisol author:vitorpamplona


This NIP describes a way for clients to access a remote Lightning wallet through a standardized protocol. Custodians may implement this, or the user may run a bridge that bridges their wallet/node and the Nostr Wallet Connect protocol.


  • client: Nostr app on any platform that wants to pay Lightning invoices.
  • user: The person using the client, and want’s to connect their wallet app to their client.
  • wallet service: Nostr app that typically runs on an always-on computer (eg. in the cloud or on a Raspberry Pi). This app has access to the APIs of the wallets it serves.

Theory of Operation

  1. Users who which to use this NIP to send lightning payments to other nostr users must first acquire a special “connection” URI from their NIP-47 compliant wallet application. The wallet application may provide this URI using a QR screen, or a pasteable string, or some other means.

  2. The user should then copy this URI into their client(s) by pasting, or scanning the QR, etc. The client(s) should save this URI and use it later whenever the user makes a payment. The client should then request an info (13194) event from the relay(s) specified in the URI. The wallet service will have sent that event to those relays earlier, and the relays will hold it as a replaceable event.

  3. When the user initiates a payment their nostr client create a pay_invoice request, encrypts it using a token from the URI, and sends it (kind 23194) to the relay(s) specified in the connection URI. The wallet service will be listening on those relays and will decrypt the request and then contact the user’s wallet application to send the payment. The wallet service will know how to talk to the wallet application because the connection URI specified relay(s) that have access to the wallet app API.

  4. Once the payment is complete the wallet service will send an encrypted response (kind 23195) to the user over the relay(s) in the URI.


There are three event kinds:

  • NIP-47 info event: 13194
  • NIP-47 request: 23194
  • NIP-47 response: 23195

The info event should be a replaceable event that is published by the wallet service on the relay to indicate which commands it supports. The content should be a plaintext string with the supported commands, space-separated, eg. pay_invoice get_balance. Only the pay_invoice command is described in this NIP, but other commands might be defined in different NIPs.

Both the request and response events SHOULD contain one p tag, containing the public key of the wallet service if this is a request, and the public key of the user if this is a response. The response event SHOULD contain an e tag with the id of the request event it is responding to.

The content of requests and responses is encrypted with NIP04 , and is a JSON-RPCish object with a semi-fixed structure:


    "method": "pay_invoice", // method, string
    "params": { // params, object
        "invoice": "lnbc50n1..." // command-related data


    "result_type": "pay_invoice", //indicates the structure of the result field
    "error": { //object, non-null in case of error
        "code": "UNAUTHORIZED", //string error code, see below
        "message": "human readable error message"
    "result": { // result, object. null in case of error.
        "preimage": "0123456789abcdef..." // command-related data

The result_type field MUST contain the name of the method that this event is responding to. The error field MUST contain a message field with a human readable error message and a code field with the error code if the command was not successful. If the command was successful, the error field must be null.

Error codes

  • RATE_LIMITED: The client is sending commands too fast. It should retry in a few seconds.
  • NOT_IMPLEMENTED: The command is not known or is intentionally not implemented.
  • INSUFFICIENT_BALANCE: The wallet does not have enough funds to cover a fee reserve or the payment amount.
  • QUOTA_EXCEEDED: The wallet has exceeded its spending quota.
  • RESTRICTED: This public key is not allowed to do this operation.
  • UNAUTHORIZED: This public key has no wallet connected.
  • INTERNAL: An internal error.
  • OTHER: Other error.

Nostr Wallet Connect URI

client discovers wallet service by scanning a QR code, handling a deeplink or pasting in a URI.

The wallet service generates this connection URI with protocol nostr+walletconnect: and base path it’s hex-encoded pubkey with the following query string parameters:

  • relay Required. URL of the relay where the wallet service is connected and will be listening for events. May be more than one.
  • secret Required. 32-byte randomly generated hex encoded string. The client MUST use this to sign events and encrypt payloads when communicating with the wallet service.
    • Authorization does not require passing keys back and forth.
    • The user can have different keys for different applications. Keys can be revoked and created at will and have arbitrary constraints (eg. budgets).
    • The key is harder to leak since it is not shown to the user and backed up.
    • It improves privacy because the user’s main key would not be linked to their payments.
  • lud16 Recommended. A lightning address that clients can use to automatically setup the lud16 field on the user’s profile if they have none configured.

The client should then store this connection and use it when the user wants to perform actions like paying an invoice. Due to this NIP using ephemeral events, it is recommended to pick relays that do not close connections on inactivity to not drop events.

Example connection string




Description: Requests payment of an invoice.


    "method": "pay_invoice",
    "params": {
        "invoice": "lnbc50n1..." // bolt11 invoice


    "result_type": "pay_invoice",
    "result": { 
        "preimage": "0123456789abcdef..." // preimage of the payment


  • PAYMENT_FAILED: The payment failed. This may be due to a timeout, exhausting all routes, insufficient capacity or similar.

Example pay invoice flow

  1. The user scans the QR code generated by the wallet service with their client application, they follow a nostr+walletconnect: deeplink or configure the connection details manually.
  2. client sends an event to the wallet service service with kind 23194. The content is a pay_invoice request. The private key is the secret from the connection string above.
  3. wallet service verifies that the author’s key is authorized to perform the payment, decrypts the payload and sends the payment.
  4. wallet service responds to the event by sending an event with kind 23195 and content being a response either containing an error message or a preimage.

Using a dedicated relay

This NIP does not specify any requirements on the type of relays used. However, if the user is using a custodial service it might make sense to use a relay that is hosted by the custodial service. The relay may then enforce authentication to prevent metadata leaks. Not depending on a 3rd party relay would also improve reliability in this case.


Proxy Tags

draft optional author:alexgleason

Nostr events bridged from other protocols such as ActivityPub can link back to the source object by including a "proxy" tag, in the form:

["proxy", <id>, <protocol>]


  • <id> is the ID of the source object. The ID format varies depending on the protocol. The ID must be universally unique, regardless of the protocol.
  • <protocol> is the name of the protocol, e.g. "activitypub".

Clients may use this information to reconcile duplicated content bridged from other protocols, or to display a link to the source object.

Proxy tags may be added to any event kind, and doing so indicates that the event did not originate on the Nostr protocol, and instead originated elsewhere on the web.

Supported protocols

This list may be extended in the future.

ProtocolID formatExample
atprotoAT URIat://did:plc:zhbjlbmir5dganqhueg7y4i3/
rssURL with guid fragment


ActivityPub object:

  "kind": 1,
  "content": "I'm vegan btw",
  "tags": [
  "pubkey": "79c2cae114ea28a981e7559b4fe7854a473521a8d22a66bbab9fa248eb820ff6",
  "created_at": 1691091365,
  "id": "55920b758b9c7b17854b6e3d44e6a02a83d1cb49e1227e75a30426dea94d4cb2",
  "sig": "a72f12c08f18e85d98fb92ae89e2fe63e48b8864c5e10fbdd5335f3c9f936397a6b0a7350efe251f8168b1601d7012d4a6d0ee6eec958067cf22a14f5a5ea579"

See also

Search Capability

draft optional author:brugeman author:mikedilger author:fiatjaf


Many Nostr use cases require some form of general search feature, in addition to structured queries by tags or ids. Specifics of the search algorithms will differ between event kinds, this NIP only describes a general extensible framework for performing such queries.

search filter field

A new search field is introduced for REQ messages from clients:

  "search": <string>

search field is a string describing a query in a human-readable form, i.e. “best nostr apps”. Relays SHOULD interpret the query to the best of their ability and return events that match it. Relays SHOULD perform matching against content event field, and MAY perform matching against other fields if that makes sense in the context of a specific kind.

A query string may contain key:value pairs (two words separated by colon), these are extensions, relays SHOULD ignore extensions they don’t support.

Clients may specify several search filters, i.e. ["REQ", "", { "search": "orange" }, { "kinds": [1, 2], "search": "purple" }]. Clients may include kinds, ids and other filter field to restrict the search results to particular event kinds.

Clients SHOULD use the supported_nips field to learn if a relay supports search filter. Clients MAY send search filter queries to any relay, if they are prepared to filter out extraneous responses from relays that do not support this NIP.

Clients SHOULD query several relays supporting this NIP to compensate for potentially different implementation details between relays.

Clients MAY verify that events returned by a relay match the specified query in a way that suits the client’s use case, and MAY stop querying relays that have low precision.

Relays SHOULD exclude spam from search results by default if they supports some form of spam filtering.


Relay MAY support these extensions:

  • include:spam - turn off spam filtering, if it was enabled by default



draft optional author:fiatjaf author:arcbtc author:monlovesmango author:eskema author:gzuuus

A “list” event is defined as having a list of public and/or private tags. Public tags will be listed in the event tags. Private tags will be encrypted in the event content. Encryption for private tags will use NIP-04 - Encrypted Direct Message encryption, using the list author’s private and public key for the shared secret. A distinct event kind should be used for each list type created.

If a list should only be defined once per user (like the “mute” list) the list is declared as a replaceable event. These lists may be referred to as “replaceable lists”. Otherwise, the list is a parameterized replaceable event and the list name will be used as the d tag. These lists may be referred to as “parameterized replaceable lists”.

Replaceable List Event Example

Lets say a user wants to create a ‘Mute’ list and has keys:

priv: fb505c65d4df950f5d28c9e4d285ee12ffaf315deef1fc24e3c7cd1e7e35f2b1
pub: b1a5c93edcc8d586566fde53a20bdb50049a97b15483cb763854e57016e0fa3d

The user wants to publicly include these users:

["p", "3bf0c63fcb93463407af97a5e5ee64fa883d107ef9e558472c4eb9aaaefa459d"],
["p", "32e1827635450ebb3c5a7d12c1f8e7b2b514439ac10a67eef3d9fd9c5c68e245"]

and privately include these users (below is the JSON that would be encrypted and placed in the event content):

    ["p", "9ec7a778167afb1d30c4833de9322da0c08ba71a69e1911d5578d3144bb56437"],
    ["p", "8c0da4862130283ff9e67d889df264177a508974e2feb96de139804ea66d6168"]

Then the user would create a ‘Mute’ list event like below:

  "kind": 10000,
  "tags": [
    ["p", "3bf0c63fcb93463407af97a5e5ee64fa883d107ef9e558472c4eb9aaaefa459d"],
    ["p", "32e1827635450ebb3c5a7d12c1f8e7b2b514439ac10a67eef3d9fd9c5c68e245"],
  "content": "VezuSvWak++ASjFMRqBPWS3mK5pZ0vRLL325iuIL4S+r8n9z+DuMau5vMElz1tGC/UqCDmbzE2kwplafaFo/FnIZMdEj4pdxgptyBV1ifZpH3TEF6OMjEtqbYRRqnxgIXsuOSXaerWgpi0pm+raHQPseoELQI/SZ1cvtFqEUCXdXpa5AYaSd+quEuthAEw7V1jP+5TDRCEC8jiLosBVhCtaPpLcrm8HydMYJ2XB6Ixs=?iv=/rtV49RFm0XyFEwG62Eo9A==",
  ...other fields

Parameterized Replaceable List Event Example

Lets say a user wants to create a ‘Categorized People’ list of nostr people and has keys:

priv: fb505c65d4df950f5d28c9e4d285ee12ffaf315deef1fc24e3c7cd1e7e35f2b1
pub: b1a5c93edcc8d586566fde53a20bdb50049a97b15483cb763854e57016e0fa3d

The user wants to publicly include these users:

["p", "3bf0c63fcb93463407af97a5e5ee64fa883d107ef9e558472c4eb9aaaefa459d"],
["p", "32e1827635450ebb3c5a7d12c1f8e7b2b514439ac10a67eef3d9fd9c5c68e245"]

and privately include these users (below is the JSON that would be encrypted and placed in the event content):

    ["p", "9ec7a778167afb1d30c4833de9322da0c08ba71a69e1911d5578d3144bb56437"],
    ["p", "8c0da4862130283ff9e67d889df264177a508974e2feb96de139804ea66d6168"]

Then the user would create a ‘Categorized People’ list event like below:

  "kind": 30000,
  "tags": [
    ["d", "nostr"],
    ["p", "3bf0c63fcb93463407af97a5e5ee64fa883d107ef9e558472c4eb9aaaefa459d"],
    ["p", "32e1827635450ebb3c5a7d12c1f8e7b2b514439ac10a67eef3d9fd9c5c68e245"],
  "content": "VezuSvWak++ASjFMRqBPWS3mK5pZ0vRLL325iuIL4S+r8n9z+DuMau5vMElz1tGC/UqCDmbzE2kwplafaFo/FnIZMdEj4pdxgptyBV1ifZpH3TEF6OMjEtqbYRRqnxgIXsuOSXaerWgpi0pm+raHQPseoELQI/SZ1cvtFqEUCXdXpa5AYaSd+quEuthAEw7V1jP+5TDRCEC8jiLosBVhCtaPpLcrm8HydMYJ2XB6Ixs=?iv=/rtV49RFm0XyFEwG62Eo9A==",
  ...other fields

Lets say a user wants to create a ‘Categorized Bookmarks’ list of bookmarks and has keys:

priv: fb505c65d4df950f5d28c9e4d285ee12ffaf315deef1fc24e3c7cd1e7e35f2b1
pub: b1a5c93edcc8d586566fde53a20bdb50049a97b15483cb763854e57016e0fa3d

The user wants to publicly include these bookmarks:

["e", "5c83da77af1dec6d7289834998ad7aafbd9e2191396d75ec3cc27f5a77226f36", "wss://"],
["a", "30023:f7234bd4c1394dda46d09f35bd384dd30cc552ad5541990f98844fb06676e9ca:abcd", "wss://"],
["r", "", "Nostr repository"],

and privately include these bookmarks (below is the JSON that would be encrypted and placed in the event content):

    ["r", "https://my-private.bookmark", "My private bookmark"],
    ["a", "30001:f7234bd4c1394dda46d09f35bd384dd30cc552ad5541990f98844fb06676e9ca:abcd", "wss://"],

Then the user would create a ‘Categorized Bookmarks’ list event like below:

  "kind": 30001,
  "tags": [
    ["d", "bookmarks"],
    ["e", "5c83da77af1dec6d7289834998ad7aafbd9e2191396d75ec3cc27f5a77226f36", "wss://"],
    ["a", "30023:f7234bd4c1394dda46d09f35bd384dd30cc552ad5541990f98844fb06676e9ca:abcd", "wss://"],
    ["r", "", "Nostr repository"],
  "content": "y3AyaLJfnmYr9x9Od9o4aYrmL9+Ynmsim5y2ONrU0urOTq+V81CyAthQ2mUOWE9xwGgrizhY7ILdQwWhy6FK0sA33GHtC0egUJw1zIdknPe7BZjznD570yk/8RXYgGyDKdexME+RMYykrnYFxq1+y/h00kmJg4u+Gpn+ZjmVhNYxl9b+TiBOAXG9UxnK/H0AmUqDpcldn6+j1/AiStwYZhD1UZ3jzDIk2qcCDy7MlGnYhSP+kNmG+2b0T/D1L0Z7?iv=PGJJfPE84gacAh7T0e6duQ==",
  ...other fields

List Event Kinds

kindlist type
30000Categorized People
30001Categorized Bookmarks

Mute List

An event with kind 10000 is defined as a replaceable list event for listing content a user wants to mute. Any standardized tag can be included in a Mute List.

Pin List

An event with kind 10001 is defined as a replaceable list event for listing content a user wants to pin. Any standardized tag can be included in a Pin List.

Categorized People List

An event with kind 30000 is defined as a parameterized replaceable list event for categorizing people. The ’d’ parameter for this event holds the category name of the list. The tags included in these lists MUST follow the format of kind 3 events as defined in NIP-02 - Contact List and Petnames .

Categorized Bookmarks List

An event of kind 30001 is defined as a parameterized replaceable list event for categorizing bookmarks. The ’d’ parameter for this event holds the category name of the list. The bookmark lists may contain metadata tags such as ’title’, ‘image’, ‘summary’ as defined in NIP-23 - Long-form Content . Any standardized tag can be included in a Categorized Bookmark List. NIP-52

Calendar Events

draft optional author:tyiu

This specification defines calendar events representing an occurrence at a specific moment or between moments. These calendar events are parameterized replaceable and deletable per NIP-09 .

Unlike the term calendar event specific to this NIP, the term event is used broadly in all the NIPs to describe any Nostr event. The distinction is being made here to discern between the two terms.

Calendar Events

There are two types of calendar events represented by different kinds: date-based and time-based calendar events. Calendar events are not required to be part of a calendar .

Date-Based Calendar Event

This kind of calendar event starts on a date and ends before a different date in the future. Its use is appropriate for all-day or multi-day events where time and time zone hold no significance. e.g., anniversary, public holidays, vacation days.


The format uses a parameterized replaceable event kind 31922.

The .content of these events is optional and should be a detailed description of the calendar event.

The list of tags are as follows:

  • d (required) universally unique identifier (UUID). Generated by the client creating the calendar event.
  • name (required) name of the calendar event
  • start (required) inclusive start date in ISO 8601 format (YYYY-MM-DD). Must be less than end, if it exists.
  • end (optional) exclusive end date in ISO 8601 format (YYYY-MM-DD). If omitted, the calendar event ends on the same date as start.
  • location (optional) location of the calendar event. e.g. address, GPS coordinates, meeting room name, link to video call
  • g (optional) geohash to associate calendar event with a searchable physical location
  • p (optional, repeated) 32-bytes hex pubkey of a participant, optional recommended relay URL, and participant’s role in the meeting
  • t (optional, repeated) hashtag to categorize calendar event
  • r (optional, repeated) references / links to web pages, documents, video calls, recorded videos, etc.
  "id": <32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded SHA-256 of the the serialized event data>,
  "pubkey": <32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded public key of the event creator>,
  "created_at": <Unix timestamp in seconds>,
  "kind": "31922",
  "content": "<description of calendar event>",
  "tags": [
    ["d", "<UUID>"],

    ["name", "<name of calendar event>"],

    // Dates
    ["start", "<YYYY-MM-DD>"],
    ["end", "<YYYY-MM-DD>"],

    // Location
    ["location", "<location>"],
    ["g", "<geohash>"],

    // Participants
    ["p", "<32-bytes hex of a pubkey>", "<optional recommended relay URL>", "<role>"],
    ["p", "<32-bytes hex of a pubkey>", "<optional recommended relay URL>", "<role>"],

    // Hashtags
    ["t", "<tag>"],
    ["t", "<tag>"],

    // Reference links
    ["r", "<url>"],
    ["r", "<url>"]

Time-Based Calendar Event

This kind of calendar event spans between a start time and end time.


The format uses a parameterized replaceable event kind 31923.

The .content of these events is optional and should be a detailed description of the calendar event.

The list of tags are as follows:

  • d (required) universally unique identifier (UUID). Generated by the client creating the calendar event.
  • name (required) name of the calendar event
  • start (required) inclusive start Unix timestamp in seconds. Must be less than end, if it exists.
  • end (optional) exclusive end Unix timestamp in seconds. If omitted, the calendar event ends instantaneously.
  • start_tzid (optional) time zone of the start timestamp, as defined by the IANA Time Zone Database. e.g., America/Costa_Rica
  • end_tzid (optional) time zone of the end timestamp, as defined by the IANA Time Zone Database. e.g., America/Costa_Rica. If omitted and start_tzid is provided, the time zone of the end timestamp is the same as the start timestamp.
  • location (optional) location of the calendar event. e.g. address, GPS coordinates, meeting room name, link to video call
  • g (optional) geohash to associate calendar event with a searchable physical location
  • p (optional, repeated) 32-bytes hex pubkey of a participant, optional recommended relay URL, and participant’s role in the meeting
  • t (optional, repeated) hashtag to categorize calendar event
  • r (optional, repeated) references / links to web pages, documents, video calls, recorded videos, etc.
  "id": <32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded SHA-256 of the the serialized event data>,
  "pubkey": <32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded public key of the event creator>,
  "created_at": <Unix timestamp in seconds>,
  "kind": "31923",
  "content": "<description of calendar event>",
  "tags": [
    ["d", "<UUID>"],

    ["name", "<name of calendar event>"],

    // Timestamps
    ["start", "<Unix timestamp in seconds>"],
    ["end", "<Unix timestamp in seconds>"],

    ["start_tzid", "<IANA Time Zone Database identifier>"],
    ["end_tzid", "<IANA Time Zone Database identifier>"],

    // Location
    ["location", "<location>"],
    ["g", "<geohash>"],

    // Participants
    ["p", "<32-bytes hex of a pubkey>", "<optional recommended relay URL>", "<role>"],
    ["p", "<32-bytes hex of a pubkey>", "<optional recommended relay URL>", "<role>"],

    // Hashtags
    ["t", "<tag>"],
    ["t", "<tag>"],

    // Reference links
    ["r", "<url>"],
    ["r", "<url>"]


A calendar is a collection of calendar events, represented as a custom replaceable list event using kind 31924. A user can have multiple calendars. One may create a calendar to segment calendar events for specific purposes. e.g., personal, work, travel, meetups, and conferences.


The format uses a custom replaceable list of kind 31924 with a list of tags as described below:

  • d (required) calendar name
  • a (repeated) reference tag to kind 31922 or 31923 calendar event being responded to
  "kind": 31924,
  "tags": [
    ["d", "<calendar name>"],
    ["a", "<31922 or 31923>:<calendar event author pubkey>:<d-identifier of calendar event>", "<optional relay url>"],
    ["a", "<31922 or 31923>:<calendar event author pubkey>:<d-identifier of calendar event>", "<optional relay url>"]

Calendar Event RSVP

A calendar event RSVP is a response to a calendar event to indicate a user’s attendance intention.

If a calendar event tags a pubkey, that can be interpreted as the calendar event creator inviting that user to attend. Clients MAY choose to prompt the user to RSVP for the calendar event.

Any user may RSVP, even if they were not tagged on the calendar event. Clients MAY choose to prompt the calendar event creator to invite the user who RSVP’d. Clients also MAY choose to ignore these RSVPs.

This NIP is intentionally not defining who is authorized to attend a calendar event if the user who RSVP’d has not been tagged. It is up to the calendar event creator to determine the semantics.

This NIP is also intentionally not defining what happens if a calendar event changes after an RSVP is submitted.


The format uses a parameterized replaceable event kind 31925.

The .content of these events is optional and should be a free-form note that adds more context to this calendar event response.

The list of tags are as follows:

  • a (required) reference tag to kind 31922 or 31923 calendar event being responded to.
  • d (required) universally unique identifier. Generated by the client creating the calendar event RSVP.
  • L (required) label namespace of status per NIP-32
  • l (required) label of accepted, declined, or tentative under the label namespace of status per NIP-32 . Determines attendance status to the referenced calendar event.
  • L (optional) label namespace of freebusy per NIP-32 . Exists if and only if corresponding l tag under the same label namespace exists.
  • l (optional) label of free or busy under the label namespace of freebusy per NIP-32 . Determines if the user would be free or busy for the duration of the calendar event. This tag must be omitted or ignored if the status label is set to declined. Exists if and only if corresponding l tag under the same label namespace exists.
  "id": <32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded SHA-256 of the the serialized event data>,
  "pubkey": <32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded public key of the event creator>,
  "created_at": <Unix timestamp in seconds>,
  "kind": "31925",
  "content": "<note>",
  "tags": [
    ["a", "<31922 or 31923>:<calendar event author pubkey>:<d-identifier of calendar event>", "<optional relay url>"],
    ["d", "<UUID>"],
    ["L", "status"],
    ["l", "<accepted/declined/tentative>", "status"],
    ["L", "freebusy"],
    ["l", "<free/busy>", "freebusy"]

Unsolved Limitations

  • No private events

Intentionally Unsupported Scenarios

Recurring Calendar Events

Recurring calendar events come with a lot of complexity, making it difficult for software and humans to deal with. This complexity includes time zone differences between invitees, daylight savings, leap years, multiple calendar systems, one-off changes in schedule or other metadata, etc.

This NIP intentionally omits support for recurring calendar events and pushes that complexity up to clients to manually implement if they desire. i.e., individual calendar events with duplicated metadata represent recurring calendar events.


Live Activities

draft optional author:vitorpamplona author:v0l


Service providers want to offer live activities to the Nostr network in such a way that participants can easily logged and queried by clients. This NIP describes a general framework to advertise the involvement of pubkeys in such live activities.

Live Event

A special event with kind:30311 “Live Event” is defined as a parameterized replaceable event of public p tags. Each p tag SHOULD have a displayable marker name for the current role (e.g. Host, Speaker, Participant) of the user in the event and the relay information MAY be empty. This event will be constantly updated as participants join and leave the activity.

For example:

  "kind": 30311,
  "tags": [
    ["d", "<unique identifier>"],
    ["title", "<name of the event>"],
    ["summary", "<description>"],
    ["image", "<preview image url>"],
    ["t", "hashtag"]
    ["streaming", "<url>"],
    ["recording", "<url>"], // used to place the edited video once the activity is over
    ["starts", "<unix timestamp in seconds>"],
    ["ends", "<unix timestamp in seconds>"],
    ["status", "<planned, live, ended>"],
    ["current_participants", "<number>"],
    ["total_participants", "<number>"],
    ["p", "91cf9..4e5ca", "wss://", "Host", "<proof>"],
    ["p", "14aeb..8dad4", "wss://", "Speaker"],
    ["p", "612ae..e610f", "ws://", "Participant"],
    ["relays", "wss://", "wss://", ...]
  "content": "",
  ...other fields

A distinct d tag should be used for each activity. All other tags are optional.

Providers SHOULD keep the participant list small (e.g. under 1000 users) and, when limits are reached, Providers SHOULD select which participants get named in the event. Clients should not expect a comprehensive list. Once the activity ends, the event can be deleted or updated to summarize the activity and provide async content (e.g. recording of the event).

Clients are expected to subscribe to kind:30311 events in general or for given follow lists and statuses. Clients MAY display participants’ roles in activities as well as access points to join the activity.

Live Activity management clients are expected to constantly update kind:30311 during the event. Clients MAY choose to consider status=live events after 1hr without any update as ended. The starts and ends timestamp SHOULD be updated when the status changes to and from live

The activity MUST be linked to using the NIP-19 naddr code along with the a tag.

Proof of Agreement to Participate

Event owners can add proof as the 5th term in each p tag to clarify the participant’s agreement in joining the event. The proof is a signed SHA256 of the complete a Tag of the event (kind:pubkey:dTag) by each p’s private key, encoded in hex.

Clients MAY only display participants if the proof is available or MAY display participants as “invited” if the proof is not available.

This feature is important to avoid malicious event owners adding large account holders to the event, without their knowledge, to lure their followers into the malicious owner’s trap.

Live Chat Message

Event kind:1311 is live chat’s channel message. Clients MUST include the a tag of the activity with a root marker. Other Kind-1 tags such as reply and mention can also be used.

  "id": "<32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded SHA-256 of the the serialized event data>",
  "pubkey": "<32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded public key of the event creator>",
  "created_at": "<Unix timestamp in seconds>",
  "kind": 1311,
  "tags": [
    ["a", "30311:<Community event author pubkey>:<d-identifier of the community>", "<Optional relay url>", "root"],
  "content": "Zaps to live streams is beautiful."

Use Cases

Common use cases include meeting rooms/workshops, watch-together activities, or event spaces, such as and .


Live Streaming

  "id": "57f28dbc264990e2c61e80a883862f7c114019804208b14da0bff81371e484d2",
  "pubkey": "1597246ac22f7d1375041054f2a4986bd971d8d196d7997e48973263ac9879ec",
  "created_at": 1687182672,
  "kind": 30311,
  "tags": [
    ["d", "demo-cf-stream"],
    ["title", "Adult Swim Metalocalypse"],
    ["summary", "Live stream from IPTV-ORG collection"],
    ["streaming", ""],
	["starts", "1687182672"]
    ["status", "live"],
    ["t", "animation"],
    ["t", "iptv"],
    ["image", ""]
  "content": "",
  "sig": "5bc7a60f5688effa5287244a24768cbe0dcd854436090abc3bef172f7f5db1410af4277508dbafc4f70a754a891c90ce3b966a7bc47e7c1eb71ff57640f3d389"

Live Streaming chat message

  "id": "97aa81798ee6c5637f7b21a411f89e10244e195aa91cb341bf49f718e36c8188",
  "pubkey": "3f770d65d3a764a9c5cb503ae123e62ec7598ad035d836e2a810f3877a745b24",
  "created_at": 1687286726,
  "kind": 1311,
  "tags": [
    ["a", "30311:1597246ac22f7d1375041054f2a4986bd971d8d196d7997e48973263ac9879ec:demo-cf-stream", "", "root"]
  "content": "Zaps to live streams is beautiful.",
  "sig": "997f62ddfc0827c121043074d50cfce7a528e978c575722748629a4137c45b75bdbc84170bedc723ef0a5a4c3daebf1fef2e93f5e2ddb98e5d685d022c30b622"



draft optional author:jb55

A report is a kind 1984 note that is used to report other notes for spam, illegal and explicit content.

The content MAY contain additional information submitted by the entity reporting the content.


The report event MUST include a p tag referencing the pubkey of the user you are reporting.

If reporting a note, an e tag MUST also be included referencing the note id.

A report type string MUST be included as the 3rd entry to the e or p tag being reported, which consists of the following report types:

  • nudity - depictions of nudity, porn, etc.
  • profanity - profanity, hateful speech, etc.
  • illegal - something which may be illegal in some jurisdiction
  • spam - spam
  • impersonation - someone pretending to be someone else

Some report tags only make sense for profile reports, such as impersonation

l and L tags MAY be also be used as defined in NIP-32 to support further qualification and querying.

Example events

  "kind": 1984,
  "tags": [
    ["p", <pubkey>, "nudity"],
    ["L", "social.nos.ontology"],
    ["l", "NS-nud", "social.nos.ontology"]
  "content": "",

  "kind": 1984,
  "tags": [
    ["e", <eventId>, "illegal"],
    ["p", <pubkey>]
  "content": "He's insulting the king!",

  "kind": 1984,
  "tags": [
    ["p", <impersonator pubkey>, "impersonation"]
  "content": "Profile is impersonating nostr:<victim bech32 pubkey>",

Client behavior

Clients can use reports from friends to make moderation decisions if they choose to. For instance, if 3+ of your friends report a profile for nudity, clients can have an option to automatically blur photos from said account.

Relay behavior

It is not recommended that relays perform automatic moderation using reports, as they can be easily gamed. Admins could use reports from trusted moderators to takedown illegal or explicit content if the relay does not allow such things.


Lightning Zaps

draft optional author:jb55 author:kieran

This NIP defines two new event types for recording lightning payments between users. 9734 is a zap request, representing a payer’s request to a recipient’s lightning wallet for an invoice. 9735 is a zap receipt, representing the confirmation by the recipient’s lightning wallet that the invoice issued in response to a zap request has been paid.

Having lightning receipts on nostr allows clients to display lightning payments from entities on the network. These can be used for fun or for spam deterrence.

Protocol flow

  1. Client calculates a recipient’s lnurl pay request url from the zap tag on the event being zapped (see Appendix G), or by decoding their lud06 or lud16 field on their profile according to the lnurl specifications . The client MUST send a GET request to this url and parse the response. If allowsNostr exists and it is true, and if nostrPubkey exists and is a valid BIP 340 public key in hex, the client should associate this information with the user, along with the response’s callback, minSendable, and maxSendable values.
  2. Clients may choose to display a lightning zap button on each post or on a user’s profile. If the user’s lnurl pay request endpoint supports nostr, the client SHOULD use this NIP to request a zap receipt rather than a normal lnurl invoice.
  3. When a user (the “sender”) indicates they want to send a zap to another user (the “recipient”), the client should create a zap request event as described in Appendix A of this NIP and sign it.
  4. Instead of publishing the zap request, the 9734 event should instead be sent to the callback url received from the lnurl pay endpoint for the recipient using a GET request. See Appendix B for details and an example.
  5. The recipient’s lnurl server will receive this zap request and validate it. See Appendix C for details on how to properly configure an lnurl server to support zaps, and Appendix D for details on how to validate the nostr query parameter.
  6. If the zap request is valid, the server should fetch a description hash invoice where the description is this zap request note and this note only. No additional lnurl metadata is included in the description. This will be returned in the response according to LUD06 .
  7. On receiving the invoice, the client MAY pay it or pass it to an app that can pay the invoice.
  8. Once the invoice is paid, the recipient’s lnurl server MUST generate a zap receipt as described in Appendix E, and publish it to the relays specified in the zap request.
  9. Clients MAY fetch zap receipts on posts and profiles, but MUST authorize their validity as described in Appendix F. If the zap request note contains a non-empty content, it may display a zap comment. Generally clients should show users the zap request note, and use the zap receipt to show “zap authorized by …” but this is optional.

Reference and examples

Appendix A: Zap Request Event

A zap request is an event of kind 9734 that is not published to relays, but is instead sent to a recipient’s lnurl pay callback url. This event’s content MAY be an optional message to send along with the payment. The event MUST include the following tags:

  • relays is a list of relays the recipient’s wallet should publish its zap receipt to. Note that relays should not be nested in an additional list, but should be included as shown in the example below.
  • amount is the amount in millisats the sender intends to pay, formatted as a string. This is recommended, but optional.
  • lnurl is the lnurl pay url of the recipient, encoded using bech32 with the prefix lnurl. This is recommended, but optional.
  • p is the hex-encoded pubkey of the recipient.

In addition, the event MAY include the following tags:

  • e is an optional hex-encoded event id. Clients MUST include this if zapping an event rather than a person.
  • a is an optional NIP-33 event coordinate that allows tipping parameterized replaceable events such as NIP-23 long-form notes.


  "kind": 9734,
  "content": "Zap!",
  "tags": [
    ["relays", "wss://"],
    ["amount", "21000"],
    ["lnurl", "lnurl1dp68gurn8ghj7um5v93kketj9ehx2amn9uh8wetvdskkkmn0wahz7mrww4excup0dajx2mrv92x9xp"],
    ["p", "04c915daefee38317fa734444acee390a8269fe5810b2241e5e6dd343dfbecc9"],
    ["e", "9ae37aa68f48645127299e9453eb5d908a0cbb6058ff340d528ed4d37c8994fb"]
  "pubkey": "97c70a44366a6535c145b333f973ea86dfdc2d7a99da618c40c64705ad98e322",
  "created_at": 1679673265,
  "id": "30efed56a035b2549fcaeec0bf2c1595f9a9b3bb4b1a38abaf8ee9041c4b7d93",
  "sig": "f2cb581a84ed10e4dc84937bd98e27acac71ab057255f6aa8dfa561808c981fe8870f4a03c1e3666784d82a9c802d3704e174371aa13d63e2aeaf24ff5374d9d"

Appendix B: Zap Request HTTP Request

A signed zap request event is not published, but is instead sent using a HTTP GET request to the recipient’s callback url, which was provided by the recipient’s lnurl pay endpoint. This request should have the following query parameters defined:

  • amount is the amount in millisats the sender intends to pay
  • nostr is the 9734 zap request event, JSON encoded then URI encoded
  • lnurl is the lnurl pay url of the recipient, encoded using bech32 with the prefix lnurl

This request should return a JSON response with a pr key, which is the invoice the sender must pay to finalize his zap. Here is an example flow:

const senderPubkey // The sender's pubkey
const recipientPubkey = // The recipient's pubkey
const callback = // The callback received from the recipients lnurl pay endpoint
const lnurl = // The recipient's lightning address, encoded as a lnurl
const sats = 21

const amount = sats * 1000
const relays = ['wss://']
const event = encodeURI(JSON.stringify(await signEvent({
  kind: 9734,
  content: "",
  pubkey: senderPubkey,
  created_at: Math.round( / 1000),
  tags: [
    ["relays", ...relays],
    ["amount", amount.toString()],
    ["lnurl", lnurl],
    ["p", recipientPubkey],

const {pr: invoice} = await fetchJson(`${callback}?amount=${amount}&nostr=${event}&lnurl=${lnurl}`)

Appendix C: LNURL Server Configuration

The lnurl server will need some additional pieces of information so that clients can know that zap invoices are supported:

  1. Add a nostrPubkey to the lnurl-pay static endpoint /.well-known/lnurlp/<user>, where nostrPubkey is the nostr pubkey your server will use to sign zap receipt events. Clients will use this to validate zap receipts.
  2. Add an allowsNostr field and set it to true.

Appendix D: LNURL Server Zap Request Validation

When a client sends a zap request event to a server’s lnurl-pay callback URL, there will be a nostr query parameter whose value is that event which is URI- and JSON-encoded. If present, the zap request event must be validated in the following ways:

  1. It MUST have a valid nostr signature
  2. It MUST have tags
  3. It MUST have only one p tag
  4. It MUST have 0 or 1 e tags
  5. There should be a relays tag with the relays to send the zap receipt to.
  6. If there is an amount tag, it MUST be equal to the amount query parameter.
  7. If there is an a tag, it MUST be a valid NIP-33 event coordinate

The event MUST then be stored for use later, when the invoice is paid.

Appendix E: Zap Receipt Event

A zap receipt is created by a lightning node when an invoice generated by a zap request is paid. Zap receipts are only created when the invoice description (committed to the description hash) contains a zap request note.

When receiving a payment, the following steps are executed:

  1. Get the description for the invoice. This needs to be saved somewhere during the generation of the description hash invoice. It is saved automatically for you with CLN, which is the reference implementation used here.
  2. Parse the bolt11 description as a JSON nostr event. This SHOULD be validated based on the requirements in Appendix D, either when it is received, or before the invoice is paid.
  3. Create a nostr event of kind 9735 as described below, and publish it to the relays declared in the zap request.

The following should be true of the zap receipt event:

  • The content SHOULD be empty.
  • The created_at date SHOULD be set to the invoice paid_at date for idempotency.
  • tags MUST include the p tag AND optional e tag from the zap request.
  • The zap receipt MUST have a bolt11 tag containing the description hash bolt11 invoice.
  • The zap receipt MUST contain a description tag which is the JSON-encoded invoice description.
  • SHA256(description) MUST match the description hash in the bolt11 invoice.
  • The zap receipt MAY contain a preimage tag to match against the payment hash of the bolt11 invoice. This isn’t really a payment proof, there is no real way to prove that the invoice is real or has been paid. You are trusting the author of the zap receipt for the legitimacy of the payment.

The zap receipt is not a proof of payment, all it proves is that some nostr user fetched an invoice. The existence of the zap receipt implies the invoice as paid, but it could be a lie given a rogue implementation.

A reference implementation for a zap-enabled lnurl server can be found here .

Example zap receipt:

    "id": "67b48a14fb66c60c8f9070bdeb37afdfcc3d08ad01989460448e4081eddda446",
    "pubkey": "9630f464cca6a5147aa8a35f0bcdd3ce485324e732fd39e09233b1d848238f31",
    "created_at": 1674164545,
    "kind": 9735,
    "tags": [
      ["p", "32e1827635450ebb3c5a7d12c1f8e7b2b514439ac10a67eef3d9fd9c5c68e245"],
      ["e", "3624762a1274dd9636e0c552b53086d70bc88c165bc4dc0f9e836a1eaf86c3b8"],
      ["bolt11", "lnbc10u1p3unwfusp5t9r3yymhpfqculx78u027lxspgxcr2n2987mx2j55nnfs95nxnzqpp5jmrh92pfld78spqs78v9euf2385t83uvpwk9ldrlvf6ch7tpascqhp5zvkrmemgth3tufcvflmzjzfvjt023nazlhljz2n9hattj4f8jq8qxqyjw5qcqpjrzjqtc4fc44feggv7065fqe5m4ytjarg3repr5j9el35xhmtfexc42yczarjuqqfzqqqqqqqqlgqqqqqqgq9q9qxpqysgq079nkq507a5tw7xgttmj4u990j7wfggtrasah5gd4ywfr2pjcn29383tphp4t48gquelz9z78p4cq7ml3nrrphw5w6eckhjwmhezhnqpy6gyf0"],
      ["description", "{\"pubkey\":\"32e1827635450ebb3c5a7d12c1f8e7b2b514439ac10a67eef3d9fd9c5c68e245\",\"content\":\"\",\"id\":\"d9cc14d50fcb8c27539aacf776882942c1a11ea4472f8cdec1dea82fab66279d\",\"created_at\":1674164539,\"sig\":\"77127f636577e9029276be060332ea565deaf89ff215a494ccff16ae3f757065e2bc59b2e8c113dd407917a010b3abd36c8d7ad84c0e3ab7dab3a0b0caa9835d\",\"kind\":9734,\"tags\":[[\"e\",\"3624762a1274dd9636e0c552b53086d70bc88c165bc4dc0f9e836a1eaf86c3b8\"],[\"p\",\"32e1827635450ebb3c5a7d12c1f8e7b2b514439ac10a67eef3d9fd9c5c68e245\"],[\"relays\",\"wss://\",\"wss://\",\"wss://\",\"wss://\",\"wss://\",\"wss://\",\"wss://\",\"wss://\",\"ws://\",\"wss://\"]]}"],
      ["preimage", "5d006d2cf1e73c7148e7519a4c68adc81642ce0e25a432b2434c99f97344c15f"]
    "content": "",
    "sig": "b0a3c5c984ceb777ac455b2f659505df51585d5fd97a0ec1fdb5f3347d392080d4b420240434a3afd909207195dac1e2f7e3df26ba862a45afd8bfe101c2b1cc"

Appendix F: Validating Zap Receipts

A client can retrieve zap receipts on events and pubkeys using a NIP-01 filter, for example {"kinds": [9735], "#e": [...]}. Zaps MUST be validated using the following steps:

  • The zap receipt event’s pubkey MUST be the same as the recipient’s lnurl provider’s nostrPubkey (retrieved in step 1 of the protocol flow).
  • The invoiceAmount contained in the bolt11 tag of the zap receipt MUST equal the amount tag of the zap request (if present).
  • The lnurl tag of the zap request (if present) SHOULD equal the recipient’s lnurl.

Appendix G: zap tag on other events

When an event includes one or more zap tags, clients wishing to zap it SHOULD calculate the lnurl pay request based on the tags value instead of the event author’s profile field. The tag’s second argument is the hex string of the receiver’s pub key and the third argument is the relay to download the receiver’s metadata (Kind-0). An optional fourth parameter specifies the weight (a generalization of a percentage) assigned to the respective receiver. Clients should parse all weights, calculate a sum, and then a percentage to each receiver. If weights are not present, CLIENTS should equally divide the zap amount to all receivers. If weights are only partially present, receivers without a weight should not be zapped (weight = 0).

    "tags": [
        [ "zap", "82341f882b6eabcd2ba7f1ef90aad961cf074af15b9ef44a09f9d2a8fbfbe6a2", "wss://", "1" ],  // 25%
        [ "zap", "fa984bd7dbb282f07e16e7ae87b26a2a7b9b90b7246a44771f0cf5ae58018f52", "wss://",    "1" ],  // 25%
        [ "zap", "460c25e682fda7832b52d1f22d3d22b3176d972f60dcdc3212ed8c92ef85065c", "wss://",       "2" ]   // 50%

Clients MAY display the zap split configuration in the note.

Future Work

Zaps can be extended to be more private by encrypting zap request notes to the target user, but for simplicity it has been left out of this initial draft.



draft optional author:cameri

Three special events are used to define, award and display badges in user profiles:

  1. A “Badge Definition” event is defined as a parameterized replaceable event with kind 30009 having a d tag with a value that uniquely identifies the badge (e.g. bravery) published by the badge issuer. Badge definitions can be updated.

  2. A “Badge Award” event is a kind 8 event with a single a tag referencing a “Badge Definition” event and one or more p tags, one for each pubkey the badge issuer wishes to award. Awarded badges are immutable and non-transferrable.

  3. A “Profile Badges” event is defined as a parameterized replaceable event with kind 30008 with a d tag with the value profile_badges. Profile badges contain an ordered list of pairs of a and e tags referencing a Badge Definition and a Badge Award for each badge to be displayed.

Badge Definition event

The following tags MUST be present:

  • d tag with the unique name of the badge.

The following tags MAY be present:

  • A name tag with a short name for the badge.
  • image tag whose value is the URL of a high-resolution image representing the badge. The second value optionally specifies the dimensions of the image as widthxheight in pixels. Badge recommended dimensions is 1024x1024 pixels.
  • A description tag whose value MAY contain a textual representation of the image, the meaning behind the badge, or the reason of it’s issuance.
  • One or more thumb tags whose first value is an URL pointing to a thumbnail version of the image referenced in the image tag. The second value optionally specifies the dimensions of the thumbnail as widthxheight in pixels.

Badge Award event

The following tags MUST be present:

  • An a tag referencing a kind 30009 Badge Definition event.
  • One or more p tags referencing each pubkey awarded.

Profile Badges Event

The number of badges a pubkey can be awarded is unbounded. The Profile Badge event allows individual users to accept or reject awarded badges, as well as choose the display order of badges on their profiles.

The following tags MUST be present:

  • A d tag with the unique identifier profile_badges

The following tags MAY be present:

  • Zero or more ordered consecutive pairs of a and e tags referencing a kind 30009 Badge Definition and kind 8 Badge Award, respectively. Clients SHOULD ignore a without corresponding e tag and viceversa. Badge Awards referenced by the e tags should contain the same a tag.


Users MAY be awarded badges (but not limited to) in recognition, in gratitude, for participation, or in appreciation of a certain goal, task or cause.

Users MAY choose to decorate their profiles with badges for fame, notoriety, recognition, support, etc., from badge issuers they deem reputable.


Badge issuers MAY include some Proof of Work as per NIP-13 when minting Badge Definitions or Badge Awards to embed them with a combined energy cost, arguably making them more special and valuable for users that wish to collect them.

Clients MAY whitelist badge issuers (pubkeys) for the purpose of ensuring they retain a valuable/special factor for their users.

Badge image recommended aspect ratio is 1:1 with a high-res size of 1024x1024 pixels.

Badge thumbnail image recommended dimensions are: 512x512 (xl), 256x256 (l), 64x64 (m), 32x32 (s) and 16x16 (xs).

Clients MAY choose to render less badges than those specified by users in the Profile Badges event or replace the badge image and thumbnails with ones that fits the theme of the client.

Clients SHOULD attempt to render the most appropriate badge thumbnail according to the number of badges chosen by the user and space available. Clients SHOULD attempt render the high-res version on user action (click, tap, hover).

Example of a Badge Definition event

  "pubkey": "alice",
  "kind": 30009,
  "tags": [
    ["d", "bravery"],
    ["name", "Medal of Bravery"],
    ["description", "Awarded to users demonstrating bravery"],
    ["image", "", "1024x1024"],
    ["thumb", "", "256x256"],

Example of Badge Award event

  "id": "<badge award event id>",
  "kind": 8,
  "pubkey": "alice",
  "tags": [
    ["a", "30009:alice:bravery"],
    ["p", "bob", "wss://relay"],
    ["p", "charlie", "wss://relay"],

Example of a Profile Badges event

Honorable Bob The Brave:

  "kind": 30008,
  "pubkey": "bob",
  "tags": [
    ["d", "profile_badges"],
    ["a", "30009:alice:bravery"],
    ["e", "<bravery badge award event id>", "wss://"],
    ["a", "30009:alice:honor"],
    ["e", "<honor badge award event id>", "wss://"],


Relay List Metadata

draft optional author:mikedilger author:vitorpamplona

Defines a replaceable event using kind:10002 to advertise preferred relays for discovering a user’s content and receiving fresh content from others.

The event MUST include a list of r tags with relay URIs and a read or write marker. If the marker is omitted, the relay is used for both purposes.

The .content is not used.

  "kind": 10002,
  "tags": [
    ["r", "wss://"],
    ["r", "wss://"],
    ["r", "wss://", "write"],
    ["r", "wss://", "read"],
  "content": "",
  ...other fields

This NIP doesn’t fully replace relay lists that are designed to configure a client’s usage of relays (such as kind:3 style relay lists). Clients MAY use other relay lists in situations where a kind:10002 relay list cannot be found.

When to Use Read and Write

When seeking events from a user, Clients SHOULD use the WRITE relays of the user’s kind:10002

When seeking events about a user, where the user was tagged, Clients SHOULD use the READ relays of the user’s kind:10002

When broadcasting an event, Clients SHOULD:

  • Broadcast the event to the WRITE relays of the author
  • Broadcast the event all READ relays of each tagged user.


The old model of using a fixed relay list per user centralizes in large relay operators:

  • Most users submit their posts to the same highly popular relays, aiming to achieve greater visibility among a broader audience.
  • Many users are pulling events from a large number of relays in order to get more data at the expense of duplication
  • Events are being copied between relays, oftentimes to many different relays

This NIP allows Clients to connect directly with the most up-to-date relay set from each individual user, eliminating the need of broadcasting events to popular relays.

Final Considerations

  1. Clients SHOULD guide users to keep kind:10002 lists small (2-4 relays).

  2. Clients SHOULD spread an author’s kind:10002 events to as many relays as viable.

  3. kind:10002 events should primarily be used to advertise the user’s preferred relays to others. A user’s own client may use other heuristics for selecting relays for fetching data.

  4. DMs SHOULD only be broadcasted to the author’s WRITE relays and to the receiver’s READ relays to keep maximum privacy.

  5. If a relay signals support for this NIP in their NIP-11 document that means they’re willing to accept kind 10002 events from a broad range of users, not only their paying customers or whitelisted group.


Moderated Communities (Reddit Style)

draft optional author:vitorpamplona author:arthurfranca

The goal of this NIP is to create moderator-approved public communities around a topic. It defines the replaceable event kind:34550 to define the community and the current list of moderators/administrators. Users that want to post into the community, simply tag any Nostr event with the community’s a tag. Moderators issue an approval event kind:4550 that links the community with the new post.

Community Definition

Kind:34550 SHOULD include any field that helps define the community and the set of moderators. relay tags MAY be used to describe the preferred relay to download requests and approvals.

  "id": "<32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded SHA-256 of the the serialized event data>",
  "pubkey": "<32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded public key of the event creator>",
  "created_at": <Unix timestamp in seconds>,
  "kind": 34550,
  "tags": [
    ["d", "<Community name>"],
    ["description", "<Community description>"],
    ["image", "<Community image url>", "<Width>x<Height>"],

    //.. other tags relevant to defining the community

    // moderators
    ["p", "<32-bytes hex of a pubkey1>", "<optional recommended relay URL>", "moderator"],
    ["p", "<32-bytes hex of a pubkey2>", "<optional recommended relay URL>", "moderator"],
    ["p", "<32-bytes hex of a pubkey3>", "<optional recommended relay URL>", "moderator"],

    // relays used by the community (w/optional marker)
    ["relay", "<relay hosting author kind 0>", "author"],
    ["relay", "<relay where to send and receive requests>", "requests"],
    ["relay", "<relay where to send and receive approvals>", "approvals"],
    ["relay", "<relay where to post requests to and fetch approvals from>"]

New Post Request

Any Nostr event can be a post request. Clients MUST add the community’s a tag to the new post event in order to be presented for the moderator’s approval.

  "id": "<32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded SHA-256 of the the serialized event data>",
  "pubkey": "<32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded public key of the event creator>",
  "created_at": <Unix timestamp in seconds>,
  "kind": 1,
  "tags": [
    ["a", "34550:<Community event author pubkey>:<d-identifier of the community>", "<Optional relay url>"],
  "content": "<My content>"

Community management clients MAY filter all mentions to a given kind:34550 event and request moderators to approve each submission. Moderators MAY delete his/her approval of a post at any time using event deletions (See NIP-09 ).

Post Approval by moderators

The post-approval event MUST include a tags of the communities the moderator is posting into (one or more), the e tag of the post and p tag of the author of the post (for approval notifications). The event SHOULD also include the stringified post request event inside the .content (NIP-18-style ) and a k tag with the original post’s event kind to allow filtering of approved posts by kind.

  "id": "<32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded SHA-256 of the the serialized event data>",
  "pubkey": "<32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded public key of the event creator>",
  "created_at": <Unix timestamp in seconds>,
  "kind": 4550,
  "tags": [
    ["a", "34550:<Community event author pubkey>:<d-identifier of the community>", "<Optional relay url>"],
    ["e", "<Post Request ID>", "<Optional relay url>"],
    ["p", "<Post Request Author ID>", "<Optional relay url>"],
    ["k", "<New Post Request kind>"],
  "content": "<New Post Request JSON>"

It’s recommended that multiple moderators approve posts to avoid deleting them from the community when a moderator is removed from the owner’s list. In case the full list of moderators must be rotated, the new moderator set must sign new approvals for posts in the past or the community will restart. The owner can also periodically copy and re-sign of each moderator’s approval events to make sure posts don’t disappear with moderators.

Post Approvals of replaceable events can be created in three ways: (i) by tagging the replaceable event as an e tag if moderators want to approve each individual change to the repleceable event; (ii) by tagging the replaceable event as an a tag if the moderator authorizes the replaceable event author to make changes without additional approvals and (iii) by tagging the replaceable event with both its e and a tag which empowers clients to display the original and updated versions of the event, with appropriate remarks in the UI. Since relays are instructed to delete old versions of a replaceable event, the .content of an e-approval MUST have the specific version of the event or Clients might not be able to find that version of the content anywhere.

Clients SHOULD evaluate any non-34550:* a tag as posts to be included in all 34550:* a tags.


Community clients SHOULD display posts that have been approved by at least 1 moderator or by the community owner.

The following filter displays the approved posts.

  "authors": ["<Author pubkey>", "<Moderator1 pubkey>", "<Moderator2 pubkey>", "<Moderator3 pubkey>", ...],
  "kinds": [4550],
  "#a": ["34550:<Community event author pubkey>:<d-identifier of the community>"],

Clients MAY hide approvals by blocked moderators at the user’s request.


Zap Goals

draft optional author:verbiricha

This NIP defines an event for creating fundraising goals. Users can contribute funds towards the goal by zapping the goal event.

Nostr Event

A kind:9041 event is used.

The .content contains a human-readable description of the goal.

The following tags are defined as REQUIRED.

  • amount - target amount in milisats.
  • relays - a list of relays the zaps to this goal will be sent to and tallied from.

Example event:

  "kind": 9041,
  "tags": [
    ["relays", "wss://", "wss://", ...],
    ["amount", "210000"],
  "content": "Nostrasia travel expenses",
  ...other fields

The following tags are OPTIONAL.

  • closed_at - timestamp for determining which zaps are included in the tally. Zap receipts published after the closed_at timestamp SHOULD NOT count towards the goal progress.
  "kind": 9041,
  "tags": [
    ["relays", "wss://", "wss://", ...],
    ["amount", "210000"],
    ["closed_at", "<unix timestamp in seconds>"],
  "content": "Nostrasia travel expenses",
  ...other fields

The goal MAY include an r or a tag linking to a URL or parameterized replaceable event.

The goal MAY include multiple beneficiary pubkeys by specifying zap tags .

Parameterized replaceable events can link to a goal by using a goal tag specifying the event id and an optional relay hint.

  "kind": 3XXXX,
  "tags": [
    ["goal", "<event id>", "<Relay URL (optional)>"],
  ...other fields

Client behavior

Clients MAY display funding goals on user profiles.

When zapping a goal event, clients MUST include the relays in the relays tag of the goal event in the zap request relays tag.

When zapping a parameterized replaceable event with a goal tag, clients SHOULD tag the goal event id in the e tag of the zap request.

Use cases

  • Fundraising clients
  • Adding funding goals to events such as long form posts, badges or live streams


Arbitrary custom app data

draft optional author:sandwich author:fiatjaf

The goal of this NIP is to enable remoteStorage -like capabilities for custom applications that do not care about interoperability.

Even though interoperability is great, some apps do not want or do not need interoperability, and it wouldn’t make sense for them. Yet Nostr can still serve as a generalized data storage for these apps in a “bring your own database” way, for example: a user would open an app and somehow input their preferred relay for storage, which would then enable these apps to store application-specific data there.

Nostr event

This NIP specifies the use of event kind 30078 (parameterized replaceable event) with a d tag containing some reference to the app name and context – or any other arbitrary string. content and other tags can be anything or in any format.

Some use cases

  • User personal settings on Nostr clients (and other apps unrelated to Nostr)
  • A way for client developers to propagate dynamic parameters to users without these having to update
  • Personal private data generated by apps that have nothing to do with Nostr, but allow users to use Nostr relays as their personal database


draft optional author:pablof7z

This NIP describes kind:31989 and kind:31990: a way to discover applications that can handle unknown event-kinds.


Nostr’s discoverability and transparent event interaction is one of its most interesting/novel mechanics. This NIP provides a simple way for clients to discover applications that handle events of a specific kind to ensure smooth cross-client and cross-kind interactions.

Parties involved

There are three actors to this workflow:

  • application that handles a specific event kind (note that an application doesn’t necessarily need to be a distinct entity and it could just be the same pubkey as user A)
    • Publishes kind:31990, detailing how apps should redirect to it
  • user A, who recommends an app that handles a specific event kind
    • Publishes kind:31989
  • user B, who seeks a recommendation for an app that handles a specific event kind
    • Queries for kind:31989 and, based on results, queries for kind:31990


Recommendation event

    "kind": 31989,
    "pubkey": <recommender-user-pubkey>,
    "tags": [
        [ "d", <supported-event-kind> ],
        [ "a", "31990:app1-pubkey:<d-identifier>", "wss://relay1", "ios" ],
        [ "a", "31990:app2-pubkey:<d-identifier>", "wss://relay2", "web" ]

The d tag in kind:31989 is the supported event kind this event is recommending.

Multiple a tags can appear on the same kind:31989.

The second value of the tag SHOULD be a relay hint. The third value of the tag SHOULD be the platform where this recommendation might apply.

Handler information

    "kind": 31990,
    "pubkey": <pubkey>,
    "content": "<optional-kind:0-style-metadata>",
    "tags": [
        [ "d", <random-id> ],
        [ "k", <supported-event-kind> ],
        [ "web", "https://..../a/<bech32>", "nevent" ],
        [ "web", "https://..../p/<bech32>", "nprofile" ],
        [ "web", "https://..../e/<bech32>" ],
        [ "ios", ".../<bech32>" ]
  • content is an optional metadata-like stringified JSON object, as described in NIP-01. This content is useful when the pubkey creating the kind:31990 is not an application. If content is empty, the kind:0 of the pubkey should be used to display application information (e.g. name, picture, web, LUD16, etc.)

  • k tags’ value is the event kind that is supported by this kind:31990. Using a k tag(s) (instead of having the kind onf the NIP-33 d tag) provides:

    • Multiple k tags can exist in the same event if the application supports more than one event kind and their handler URLs are the same.
    • The same pubkey can have multiple events with different apps that handle the same event kind.
  • bech32 in a URL MUST be replaced by clients with the NIP-19-encoded entity that should be loaded by the application.

Multiple tags might be registered by the app, following NIP-19 nomenclature as the second value of the array.

A tag without a second value in the array SHOULD be considered a generic handler for any NIP-19 entity that is not handled by a different tag.

User flow

A user A who uses a non-kind:1-centric nostr app could choose to announce/recommend a certain kind-handler application.

When user B sees an unknown event kind, e.g. in a social-media centric nostr client, the client would allow user B to interact with the unknown-kind event (e.g. tapping on it).

The client MIGHT query for the user’s and the user’s follows handler.


User A recommends a kind:31337-handler

User A might be a user of Zapstr, a kind:31337-centric client (tracks). Using Zapstr, user A publishes an event recommending Zapstr as a kind:31337-handler.

    "kind": 31989,
    "tags": [
        [ "d", "31337" ],
        [ "a", "31990:1743058db7078661b94aaf4286429d97ee5257d14a86d6bfa54cb0482b876fb0:abcd", <relay-url>, "web" ]

User B interacts with a kind:31337-handler

User B might see in their timeline an event referring to a kind:31337 event (e.g. a kind:1 tagging a kind:31337).

User B’s client, not knowing how to handle a kind:31337 might display the event using its alt tag (as described in NIP-31). When the user clicks on the event, the application queries for a handler for this kind:

["REQ", <id>, '[{ "kinds": [31989], "#d": ["31337"], 'authors': [<user>, <users-contact-list>] }]']

User B, who follows User A, sees that kind:31989 event and fetches the a-tagged event for the app and handler information.

User B’s client sees the application’s kind:31990 which includes the information to redirect the user to the relevant URL with the desired entity replaced in the URL.

Alternative query bypassing kind:31989

Alternatively, users might choose to query directly for kind:31990 for an event kind. Clients SHOULD be careful doing this and use spam-prevention mechanisms to avoid directing users to malicious handlers.

["REQ", <id>, '[{ "kinds": [31990], "#k": [<desired-event-kind>], 'authors': [...] }]'] NIP-94

File Metadata

draft optional author:frbitten author:kieran author:lovvtide author:fiatjaf author:staab

The purpose of this NIP is to allow an organization and classification of shared files. So that relays can filter and organize in any way that is of interest. With that, multiple types of filesharing clients can be created. NIP-94 support is not expected to be implemented by “social” clients that deal with kind:1 notes or by longform clients that deal with kind:30023 articles.

Event format

This NIP specifies the use of the 1063 event type, having in content a description of the file content, and a list of tags described below:

  • url the url to download the file
  • m a string indicating the data type of the file. The MIME types format must be used, and they should be lowercase.
  • "aes-256-gcm" (optional) key and nonce for AES-GCM encryption with tagSize always 128bits
  • x containing the SHA-256 hexencoded string of the file.
  • size (optional) size of file in bytes
  • dim (optional) size of file in pixels in the form <width>x<height>
  • magnet (optional) URI to magnet file
  • i (optional) torrent infohash
  • blurhash(optional) the blurhash to show while the file is being loaded by the client
  "id": <32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded sha256 of the the serialized event data>,
  "pubkey": <32-bytes lowercase hex-encoded public key of the event creator>,
  "created_at": <unix timestamp in seconds>,
  "kind": 1063,
  "tags": [
    ["url",<string with URI of file>],
    ["aes-256-gcm",<key>, <iv>],
    ["m", <MIME type>],
    ["x",<Hash SHA-256>],
    ["size", <size of file in bytes>],
    ["dim", <size of file in pixels>],
    ["magnet",<magnet URI> ],
    ["i",<torrent infohash>],
    ["blurhash", <value>]
  "content": <description>,
  "sig": <64-bytes hex of the signature of the sha256 hash of the serialized event data, which is the same as the "id" field>

Suggested use cases

  • A relay for indexing shared files. For example, to promote torrents.
  • A pinterest-like client where people can share their portfolio and inspire others.
  • A simple way to distribute configurations and software updates.



draft optional author:kieran author:melvincarvalho

This NIP defines an ephemeral event used to authorize requests to HTTP servers using nostr events.

This is useful for HTTP services which are built for Nostr and deal with Nostr user accounts.

Nostr event

A kind 27235 (In reference to RFC 7235 ) event is used.

The content SHOULD be empty.

The following tags MUST be included.

  • u - absolute URL
  • method - HTTP Request Method

Example event:

    "id": "fe964e758903360f28d8424d092da8494ed207cba823110be3a57dfe4b578734",
    "pubkey": "63fe6318dc58583cfe16810f86dd09e18bfd76aabc24a0081ce2856f330504ed",
    "content": "",
    "kind": 27235,
    "created_at": 1682327852,
    "tags": [
    "sig": "5ed9d8ec958bc854f997bdc24ac337d005af372324747efe4a00e24f4c30437ff4dd8308684bed467d9d6be3e5a517bb43b1732cc7d33949a3aaf86705c22184"

Servers MUST perform the following checks in order to validate the event:

  1. The kind MUST be 27235.
  2. The created_at timestamp MUST be within a reasonable time window (suggestion 60 seconds).
  3. The u tag MUST be exactly the same as the absolute request URL (including query parameters).
  4. The method tag MUST be the same HTTP method used for the requested resource.

When the request contains a body (as in POST/PUT/PATCH methods) clients SHOULD include a SHA256 hash of the request body in a payload tag as hex (["payload", "<sha256-hex>"]), servers MAY check this to validate that the requested payload is authorized.

If one of the checks was to fail the server SHOULD respond with a 401 Unauthorized response code.

Servers MAY perform additional implementation-specific validation checks.

Request Flow

Using the Authorization HTTP header, the kind 27235 event MUST be base64 encoded and use the Authorization scheme Nostr

Example HTTP Authorization header:


Reference Implementations


Classified Listings

draft optional author:erskingardner

This NIP defines kind:30402: a parameterized replaceable event to describe classified listings that list any arbitrary product, service, or other thing for sale or offer and includes enough structured metadata to make them useful.

The category of classifieds includes a very broad range of physical goods, services, work opportunities, rentals, free giveaways, personals, etc. and is distinct from the more strictly structured marketplaces defined in NIP-15 that often sell many units of specific products through very specific channels.

The structure of these events is very similar to NIP-23 long-form content events.

Draft / Inactive Listings

kind:30403 has the same structure as kind:30402 and is used to save draft or inactive classified listings.


The .content field should be a description of what is being offered and by whom. These events should be a string in Markdown syntax.


The .pubkey field of these events are treated as the party creating the listing.


  • For “tags”/“hashtags” (i.e. categories or keywords of relevance for the listing) the "t" event tag should be used, as per NIP-12 .
  • For images, whether included in the markdown content or not, clients SHOULD use image tags as described in NIP-58 . This allows clients to display images in carousel format more easily.

The following tags, used for structured metadata, are standardized and SHOULD be included. Other tags may be added as necessary.

  • "title", a title for the listing
  • "summary", for short tagline or summary for the listing
  • "published_at", for the timestamp (in unix seconds – converted to string) of the first time the listing was published.
  • "location", for the location.
  • "price", for the price of the thing being listed. This is an array in the format [ "price", "<number>", "<currency>", "<frequency>" ].
    • "price" is the name of the tag
    • "<number>" is the amount in numeric format (but included in the tag as a string)
    • "<currency>" is the currency unit in 3-character ISO 4217 format or ISO 4217-like currency code (e.g. "btc", "eth").
    • "<frequency>" is optional and can be used to describe recurring payments. SHOULD be in noun format (hour, day, week, month, year, etc.)
price examples
  • $50 one-time payment ["price", "50", "USD"]
  • €15 per month ["price", "15", "EUR", "month"]
  • £50,000 per year ["price", "50000", "GBP", "year"]

Other standard tags that might be useful.

  • "g", a geohash for more precise location

Example Event

  "kind": 30402,
  "created_at": 1675642635,
  // Markdown content
  "content": "Lorem [ipsum][nostr:nevent1qqst8cujky046negxgwwm5ynqwn53t8aqjr6afd8g59nfqwxpdhylpcpzamhxue69uhhyetvv9ujuetcv9khqmr99e3k7mg8arnc9] dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.\n\nRead more at nostr:naddr1qqzkjurnw4ksz9thwden5te0wfjkccte9ehx7um5wghx7un8qgs2d90kkcq3nk2jry62dyf50k0h36rhpdtd594my40w9pkal876jxgrqsqqqa28pccpzu.",
  "tags": [
    ["d", "lorem-ipsum"],
    ["title", "Lorem Ipsum"],
    ["published_at", "1296962229"],
    ["t", "electronics"],
    ["image", "", "256x256"],
    ["summary", "More lorem ipsum that is a little more than the title"],
    ["location", "NYC"],
    ["price", "100", "USD"],
  "pubkey": "...",
  "id": "..."


Source: nostr-protocol/nips version: f3bafe5 2023-09-24T19:48:05-03:00